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Beata Płonka

Abstract

The concept of “nature and nurture” is used to distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on the formation of individual, mainly behavioral, traits. Different approaches that interpret nature and nurture as completely opposite or complementary aspects of human development have been discussed for decades. The paper addresses the most important points of nature vs nurture debate from the perspective of biological research, especially in the light of the recent findings in the field of epigenetics. The most important biological concepts, such as the trait, phenotype and genotype, as well as the evolution of other crucial notions are presented. Various attempts to find the main source of human variation are discussed - mainly the search for structural variants and the genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A new approach resulting from the discovery of “missing heritability”, as well as the current knowledge about the possible influence of epigenetic mechanisms on human traits are analyzed. Finally, the impact of epigenetic revolution on the society (public attitude, health policy, human rights etc.) is discussed.

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Mehdi Shokri

Abstract

This paper assesses the fundamental relation between the Islamic-political movements and establishment of the Islamic law (Shari’a). I argue against the critiques of western foreign policy and show that the Islamic State (Caliphate) is both a result of the historical process of the people of a region and the extreme interpretation of the text and Sunna which emphasizes on the traditional Sharia law and the concept of Jihad by fortifying political Islam qua militant Islam. I argue that the Islamic revival aims to a certain political order which threatens the world security and peace. Moreover, I argue that the structural violation of Human Rights is rooted in the traditional concept of Islamic law or Sharia, which obtains its immunity by an illegitimate power. This traditional Islamic law is the inalienable character of authoritarian/totalitarian regimes. This paper is based on the assumption that the extreme ideological/theoretical interpretation implies the empirical objectives of Militant Islamic community with or without any external influential elements. In this sense, we can address the question: how different interpretations and traditions in executing the Islamic Sharia give the social and political grounds a seed for the emergence of violence and terrorism. At the end, this paper ends with a propose which emphasizes on the role of international cooperation to find a resolution and also on the education as a long-term plan to defeat extremism and terrorism.

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D. Gabriška

Abstract

The article describes the main requirements of the software subsystems management development. Standard IEC 61508-3 provides an overview at all stages of the life cycle of all security systems, including E/E/PE of a security system from initial concept, design, and implementation to operation maintenance. In this paper we analyzed set out requirements for the drafting of a software architecture that is consistent with the hardware architecture while meeting specified requirements for software safety.

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A. V. García luengo

Abstract

The problem of estimating the finite population mean on the samples selected over two occasions has been considered, when there is non-response (i) on both the occasions, (ii) only on the second occasion for both matched and unmatched portions of the sample, and (iii) only on the second occasion for unmatched portion of the sample. For the case when two auxiliary variables are positively and negatively correlated with the study variable, a double sampling ratio-cum-product estimate from the matched portion of the sample is presented. Expressions for optimum matching fraction and of the combined estimate have been derived. The gain in efficiency, the sample sizes and the cost function of the combined estimators over the direct estimate using no information gathered on the first occasion is computed. The comparison between the proposed strategy with other estimators is also carried out. An empirical study is also included for illustration.

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L. Haviarová and E. Toman

Abstract

In the present paper we consider symmetric Boolean functions with special property. We study properties of the maximal intervals of these functions. Later we show characteristics of corresponding interval graphs and simplified interval graphs. Specifically we prove, that these two graphs are isomorphic for symmetric Boolean function. Then we obtain the vertex degree of these graphs. We discuss also disjunctive normal forms.

Open access

N. B. Khoolenjani and O. Chatrabgoun

Abstract

The problem of estimating lifetime distribution parameters under progressively Type-II censoring originated in the context of reliability. But traditionally it is assumed that the available data from this censoring scheme are performed in exact numbers. However, some collected lifetime data might be imprecise and are represented in the form of fuzzy numbers. Thus, it is necessary to generalize classical statistical estimation methods for real numbers to fuzzy numbers. This paper deals with the estimation of lifetime distribution parameters under progressively Type-II censoring scheme when the lifetime observations are reported by means of fuzzy numbers. A new method is proposed to determine the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters of interest. The methodology is illustrated with two popular models in lifetime analysis, the Rayleigh and Lognormal lifetime distributions.

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A. Mihálik and R. Ďurikovič

Abstract

Nowadays digital cameras with both high resolution and the high dynamic range (HDR) can be considered as parallel multiple sensors producing multiple measurements at once. In this paper we describe a technique for processing the captured HDR data and than fit them to theoretical surface reflection models in the form of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Finally, the tabular BRDF can be used to calculate the gloss reflection of the surface. We compare the captured glossiness by digital camera with gloss measured with the industry device and conclude that the results fit well in our experiments.

Open access

Ivan A. Karpenko

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of time in the context of several theories of modem physics. This fundamental concept inevitably arises in physical theories, but so far there is no adequate description of it in the philosophy of science. In the theory of relativity, quantum field theory. Standard Model of particle physics, theory of loop quantum gravity, superstring theory and other most recent theories the idea of time is shown explicitly or not. Sometimes, such as in the special theory of relativity, it plays a significant role and sometimes it does not. But anyway it exists and is implied by the content of the theory, which in some cases directly includes its mathematical tools. Fundamental difference of space-time processes in microcosm and macrocosm is of particular importance for solving the problem. In this regard, a need to understand the time in the way it appears in modem physics, to describe it in the language of philosophy arises (satisfactory for time description mathematical tools also do not exist). This will give an opportunity to get closer to the answer on question of time characteristics. And even if we do not obtain the exact answer, we will still be able to formulate the right question about its nature. For this purpose, the present research carries out analysis of the key theories of modern physics with regard to historical and scientific, historical and philosophical perspectives, hi some cases, this gives an opportunity to detect the succession of the associated with time perception ideas, their development, as well as the origination of fundamentally new ones. During the analysis, the conect characteristics of time are formulated from the point of view of physical theory and the attempt to state the nature of time is made. On the ground of conducted research, the conclusions about current state of the problem and its future solution perspectives are drawn.

Open access

Basil Lourié

Abstract

The paper deals with the most controversial - in the modern scholarly discussion - episode within the Byzantine polemics on the Filioque, Nicephorus Blemmydes‘ acknowledgement of proceeding of the Spirit through the Son providing that the Son be considered as generated through the Spirit. The logical intuition behind this theological idea is explicated in the terms of paraconsistent logic and especially of a kind of paraconsistent numbers called by the author “pseudo-natural numbers”. Such numbers could not be interpreted via the notion of ordered pair. Instead, they imply a known (first described by Emil Post in 1941) but still little studied logical connective ternary exclusive OR.