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Open access

V.C. Sinha, S. Kundu and S. Chatterjee

Abstract

In the present study, the effect of tool rotational speed on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints between commercially pure copper and 6351 Al alloy was carried out in the range of tool rotational speeds of 300-900 rpm in steps of 150 rpm at 30 mm/minutes travel speed. Up to 450 rpm, the interface of the joints is free from intermetallics and Al4Cu9 intermetallic has been observed at the stir zone. However, Al4Cu9 intermetallic was observed both at the interface and the stir zone at 600 rpm. At 750 and 900 rpm tool rotational speed, the layers of AlCu, Al2Cu3 and Al4Cu9 intermetallics were observed at the interface and only Al4Cu9 intermetallics has been observed in the stir zone. The maximum ultimate tensile strength of ~207 MPa and yield strength of ~168 MPa along with ~6.2% elongation at fracture of the joint have been obtained when processed at 450 rpm tool rotational speed.

Open access

R.E. Śliwa, T. Balawender, E. Hadasik, D. Kuc, A. Gontarz, A. Korbel and W. Bochniak

Abstract

The work presents an analysis of selected magnesium alloys as structural materials to be used in production of aircraft parts as well as their technological parameters in some manufacturing processes. Upsetting test, backward extrusion and Kobo extrusion of complex cross-sectional profiles and forging process were realized using magnesium alloys AZ31, AZ61, AZ80, WE 43 and Mg alloy with Li for production of thin - walled aircraft profiles and forged aviation parts. The range of temperatures and extrusion rate for the manufacturing these profiles were determined. Tests also covered the analysis of microstructure of Mg alloys in the initial state as well as after the extrusion process. It has been proved that the proper choice of parameters in the case of a specific profile extruded from magnesium alloys allows the manufacturing of products of complex cross-sections and the quality required in aerospace industry. This has been demonstrated on the examples of complex cross-sectional profiles using elements of varied wall thickness and examples of forged aviation parts: aircraft wheel hub and helicopter lever for control system.

Open access

I. Sulima, G. Boczkal and P. Palka

Abstract

Microstructure and mechanical properties of the 316L steel composite reinforced with TiB2 phase were examined. The test materials were obtained by SPS technique from powders. From testing of the mechanical properties it follows that the optimum temperature for the fabrication of 316Lsteel-TiB2 composites by SPS is 1100°C. Studies have also proved that the critical content of TiB2 phase in steel matrix should not exceed 6vol%. Above this level, the plastic properties of the composite become unstable and strongly dependent on the time of sintering.

Open access

A. Kurc-Lisiecka, J. Piwnik and A. Lisiecki

Abstract

The article presents results of investigations on autogenous laser welding of new grade STRENX 1100 MC steel. The modern Disk laser was applied for of 5.0 mm thick butt joints welding. The influence of laser welding parameters, mainly the energy input of laser welding on the penetration shape, weld quality, structure and mechanical performance was investigated. It was found that the investigated steel has surprisingly low carbon equivalent CET just 0.328, and also relatively high temperature of martensitic transformation Ms at 430.6°C. Despite very rapid cooling times t8/5 in a range from 0.6 to 1.3 s, thus rapid solidification there was no tendency to cracking of weld metal or HAZ. Significant drop of microhardness in the HAZ resulted in a decrease of tensile strength of joints, compared to the base metal. Impact toughness of test joints was at only 50÷60% of the base metal.

Open access

P. Błyskun, J. Latuch and T. Kulik

Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of isothermal annealing on the amorphous structure stability of the Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 alloy. A series of continuous heating examinations was performed on the differential scanning calorimeter in order to determine the temperature limits for isothermal annealing series where the time to crystallization was measured. The obtained results were calculated and a time-temperature-transformation diagram was created and discussed. Static compression test as well as microhardness measurements of the as-quenched samples gave a mechanical properties results supplement. The measured properties (σc = 1800 MPa and 614 HV0.05) are comparable to the literature results for this alloy. Fractographic observations with the scanning electron microscope were also performed in order to prove some plasticity observed during the strength tests.

Open access

P. Sevvel and V. Jaiganesh

Abstract

Experimental investigation was conducted to find out microstructural characteristic changes arising in the weldments AZ80A Mg alloys obtained using the friction stir welding. Tools with three different pin profile geometries were employed during this investigation at constant tool rotational speed and feed rate. Tensile tests are performed and the tensile fracture surfaces are examined using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the obtained SEM images are used for microstructural investigations. From the experimental results, it was observed that the geometry of the tool pin plays a significant role in producing essential stirring action there by regulating the flow of the plasticized material and leading to the formation of small sized grains having equally distributed fine strengthening precipitates. These structured grains have a direct reflecting impact in increasing the hardness and mechanical properties of the fabricated joints at the nugget zone of the friction stir welded AZ80A Mg alloy joints.

Open access

M. Uhríčik, P. Palček, M. Chalupová, M. Oravcová and M. Frkáň

Abstract

The article will be focused on monitoring the influence of the structure on the fatigue properties of aluminium alloys for the casting of type Al-Mg. As an experimental material were used aluminium alloys EN AC 51200 and EN AC 51500, supplied in a cast state without a heat treatment. They were produced by the continuous casting method. These alloys were selected on the basis of the chemical composition, where the content of most alloying elements is comparable, only in the case of the concentration of magnesium are these alloys significantly different. Fatigue properties of aluminium alloys were tested by three-point bending cyclic loading. The fracture surface of the testing sample was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), where samples were observed on various stages of the fatigue process, their characteristics and differences of fracture surfaces.

Open access

P. Sevvel and V. Jaiganesh

Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to produce defect free weldments with improved properties during friction stir welding of dissimilar Mg alloys. The influence of the anisotropic arrangement of materials when AZ80A Mg alloy is taken as advancing side and AZ91C Mg alloy as retreating side and vice versa with respect to their mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics were investigated. The effects of various FSW parameters on the quality of these joints were also analyzed and best optimized FSW parameters were suggested. Defect free sound joints with excellent mechanical properties were produced when AZ80A Mg alloy was positioned at retreating side. At the same time, it seems a little bit difficult to obtain good quality joints with the contrary arrangement of materials. These investigations revealed that materials having inferior plastic deformability must be kept at the advancing side to obtain sound joints during FSW of dissimilar alloys of Magnesium.

Open access

Samir Kumar Pal, K.U.M. Rao, P. Sathish Kumar and R. Rajasekar

Abstract

Rubbers are interesting materials and are extensively used in many mining industries for material transportation. Wear of rubber is a very complex phenomenon to understand. The present study aims to explain the influence of rock properties on wear of M and SR grade rubber used in top cover of conveyor belts. Extensive laboratory experiments were conducted under four combinations of normal load and sliding speed. The wear of both the rubber types were analyzed based on the rock properties like shear strength, abrasivity index and fractal dimension. A fully instrumented testing set up was used to study the wear of rubber samples under different operating conditions. In general, wear was higher for M grade rubber compared to SR grade rubber. Increase in shear strength of rocks depicts decreasing trend for the wear of M and SR grade rubber at lower load conditions. Moreover, a higher load combination displays no definite trend in both the rubbers. The strong correlation between the wear of rubber and frictional power for all rubber-rock combinations has given rise to the parameter A, which reflects the relative compatibility between the rubber and rock. Increase of Cerchar’s Abrasivity Index of rocks shows gradual enhancement in wear for M grade rubber in all the load and speed combinations whereas, it fails in SR grade rubber due to its higher strength. The wear of rubber tends to decrease marginally with the surface roughness of rocks at highest normal load and sliding speed in M grade rubber. However, the wear of M and SR grade rubber is influenced by the surface roughness of rocks.

Open access

M. Jabłoński, T. Knych, A. Mamala, B. Smyrak and K. Wojtaszek

Abstract

The effect of iron and silicon addition on the structure and properties of aluminium wire rod obtained in the laboratory horizontal direct chill casting process has been analysed. In addition, the impact of laboratory wire drawing process has been examined. The addition of iron and velocity of casting increase the strength of aluminium wire rod in as-cast condition while the electrical conductivity drop acceptable. Moreover, the laboratory wire drawing process causes work-hardening wires and increase drawing tension as a result of fragmentation of structure and growth of grain boundaries. It has been shown that iron is beneficial for mechanical and technological properties of aluminium.