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P. Łada, A. Miazga, P. Bazarnik and K. Konopka

Abstract

In this work the microstructure analysis of composite from ZrO2 – Ti system were presented. For the preparation of the composite samples nanometric ZrO2 powder stabilized by 3 mol% of Y2O3 and micrometric titanium powder were used. The composites with 10 vol.% addition of titanium particles were prepared by slip casting method. The sintering process was conducted at 1450°C with 2 hours’ dwell time, in the inert atmosphere of argon. The microstructure observations were carried out with the use of SEM and STEM microscopes. The quantitative analysis and stereological characterization were performed. The SEM and STEM observations allowed characterizing the microstructure of composite samples. Especially, the interface between titanium particles and zirconia matrix was described. The growth of the zirconia grains around the Ti rich areas was observed. The increase of the zirconia grains size results from the reaction on the interface between titanium particle and zirconia matrix during the sintering process.

Open access

L. Cizek, S. Rusz, O. Hilser, R. Śliwa, D. Kuc, T. Tański and M. Tkocz

Abstract

A growing interest in wrought magnesium alloys has been noticed recently, mainly due to development of various SPD (severe plastic deformation) methods that enable significant refinement of the microstructure and – as a result – improvement of various functional properties of products. However, forming as-cast magnesium alloys with the increased aluminum content at room temperature is almost impossible. Therefore, application of heat treatment before forming or forming at elevated temperature is recommended for these alloys. The paper presents the influence of selected heat treatment conditions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the as-cast AZ91 alloy. Deformation behaviour of the as-cast AZ61 alloy at elevated temperatures was analysed as well. The microstructure analysis was performed by means of both light microscopy and SEM. The latter one was used also for fracture analysis. Moreover, the effect of chemical composition modification by lithium addition on the microstructure of the AZ31-based alloy is presented. The test results can be helpful in preparation of the magnesium-aluminum alloys for further processing by means of SPD methods.

Open access

A. Hamdollahzadeh, H. Omidvar and A. Amirnasiri

Abstract

In this paper, effects of preheating and type of electrode (E8010 and E8018) on microstructure and mechanical properties of 5L X70 steel welded joints were investigated. The microstructure of joint zone and fracture surface was analyzed by light optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Hardness mapping and tensile test were also performed to find the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties. The results showed a consistency between the hardness variation data and the microstructure of joint zone. Moreover, hardness mapping revealed coarse and fine grain subregions in the heat affected zone which were not detected in the micrographs. The tensile test indicated that the non-preheated sample, welded by cellulosic E8010, had the minimum value in the strength and the ductility of welded steel. The fractography also determined that size and distribution of strengthening phases affected the fracture mode of welded specimens.

Open access

P. Ledwig and B. Dubiel

Abstract

The aim of this work was to obtain composite of nc-TiO2/Ni coatings on 316L steel and to characterize their corrosion resistance. In order to investigate the influence of the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles, both pure Ni and composite nc-TiO2/Ni coatings were electrodeposited from nickel citrate baths. The microstructure of the coatings was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The nc-TiO2/Ni coatings were about 10 μm thick. Their microstructure consisted of TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly distributed in nanocrystalline Ni matrix. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was measured using impedance spectroscopy and polarization curves techniques in Ringer’s solution. It was determined that the addition of nano-TiO2 particles improved corrosion resistance and reduced corrosion rate of the coated steel.

Open access

D. Janicki

Abstract

Diode laser surface alloying process was used to the in-situ synthesis of TiC-reinforced composite surface layers on the ductile cast iron substrate. The obtained composite surface layers were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and XRD diffraction.

It was found that the morphology and fraction of TiC phase is directly dependent upon both the concentration of titanium in the molten pool and also the solidification rate. With increasing titanium content, the fraction of TiC increases, whereas the fraction of cementite decreases. The TiC phase promotes a heterogeneous nucleation of primary austenite grains, what reduces a tendency of cracking in the alloyed layers.

Open access

J. Marcisz, W. Burian, R. Rozmus and J. Janiszewski

Abstract

Changes in the microstructure of nanostructured bainitic steel induced by quasi-static and dynamic deformation have been shown in the article. The method of deformation and strain rate have important impact on the microstructure changes especially due to strain localization. Microstructure of nanostructured steel Fe-0.6%C-1.9Mn-1.8Si-1.3Cr-0.7Mo consists of nanometer size carbide-free bainite laths and 20-30% volume fraction of retained austenite. Quasi-static and dynamic (strain rate up to 2×102 s−1) compression tests were realized using Gleeble simulator. Dynamic deformation at the strain rate up to 9×103 s−1 was realized by the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar method (SHPB). Moreover high energy firing tests of plates made of the nanostructured bainitic steel were carried out to produce dynamically deformed material for investigation. Adiabatic shear bands were found as a result of localization of deformation in dynamic compression tests and in firing tests. Microstructure of the bands was examined and hardness changes in the vicinity of the bands were determined. The TEM examination of the ASBs showed the change from the internal shear band structure to the matrix structure to be gradual. This study clearly resolved that the interior (core) of the band has an extremely fine grained structure with grain diameter ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm. Martensitic twins were found within the grains. No austenite and carbide reflections were detected in the diffraction patterns taken from the core of the band. Hardness of the core of the ASBs for examined variants of isothermal heat treatment was higher about 300 HV referring to steel matrix hardness.

Open access

Krisztina Albert, Gyula Vatai and András Koris

Abstract

Microencapsulation technology is a method that is widely used in the food industry. By comparing the latest encapsulation techniques, a significant number of publications concern membrane technology. The term “membrane- based encapsulation” entails that the first step of the technique is the preparation of emulsion with the help of microporous membranes. Generally, in microencapsulation technologies, the wall material is dissolved in a continuous phase and oil is dispersed within it. In the present investigation, a new method of preparing microcapsules composed of vegetable oil and maltodextrin was developed. In the first step, the wall material (maltodextrin) was dissolved in oil and considered as a dispersed phase, subsequently, it was introduced into a continuous phase (water) through a microporous membrane. A comparative study was conducted between conventional microencapsulation techniques and one developed in our laboratory. The average particle size of microcapsules prepared by our method is smaller than the size allowed by other methods. After encapsulation preparation, fine-tuned microcapsules were produced by spray drying. However, the main disadvantage of our proposed technology is rapid membrane fouling, because of high concentrations of solute in the dispersed phase. This problem can be eliminated by judicious and systematic investigations.

Open access

Zeeshan Nawaz

Abstract

A pseudo-homogeneous model of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) synthesis in a multi-tubular packed-bed reactor has been developed using an Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) for selecting optimum operating strategies, for the maximization and enhancement of MTBE production, and isobutylene consumption, respectively. The model accounts for mass, energy and momentum balances; and the effectiveness factor is evaluated in a onedimensional pseudo-homogeneous model. The kinetic investigation contains kinetic rate expressions as given by the effectiveness factor for accounting the resistance of pellets in terms of mass and heat transfer. An activity coefficient can be used in order to systematically obtain a new steady-state solution. The model used literature-based correlations for the estimation of heat transfer coefficients. The value of the coefficient for gascoolant heat transfer can be adjusted by using a tuning coefficient in order to enrich the process data. Reasonable agreement was found between model predictions and data under similar conditions. The studies concerning model sensitivity compute the optimum temperature, pressure, feed flow rate, methanol/isobutylene ratio, heat removal rate, etc. of the reactor and suggest optimum operating conditions of the reactor.

Open access

R. Rana, S. Chen, A. Haldar and S. Das

Abstract

A carbide-free bainitic microstructure is suitable for achieving a combination of ultra high strength and high ductility. In this work, a steel containing nominally 0.34C-2Mn-1.5Si-1Cr (wt.%) was produced via industrial hot rolling and laboratory heat treatments. The austenitization (900°C, 30 min.) and austempering (300-400°C, 3 h) treatments were done in salt bath furnaces. The austempering treatments were designed to approximately simulate the coiling step, following hot rolling and run-out-table cooling, when the bainitic transformation would take place and certain amount of austenite would be stabilized due to suppression of carbide precipitation. The microstructures and various mechanical properties (tensile properties, bendability, flangeability, and room and subzero temperature impact toughness) relevant for applications were characterized. It was found that the mechanical properties were highly dependent on the stability of the retained austenite, presence of martensite in the microstructure and the size of the microstructural constituents. The highest amount of retained austenite (~ 27 wt.%) was obtained in the sample austempered at 375°C but due to lower austenite stability and coarser overall microstructure, the sample exhibited lower tensile ductility, bendability, flangeability and impact toughness. The sample austempered at 400°C also showed poor properties due to the presence of initial martensite and coarse microstructure. The best combination of mechanical properties was achieved for the samples austempered at 325-350°C with a lower amount of retained austenite but with the highest mechanical stability.

Open access

M. Staszuk, D. Pakuła, M. Pancielejko, T. Tański and L.A. Dobrzański

Abstract

The paper presents the results on the wear resistance of PVD coatings on cutting inserts made from sintered carbide and sialon ceramics. The exploitative properties of coatings in technological cutting trials were defined in the paper, which also examined the adhesion of coatings to the substrate, the thickness of the coating, and the microhardness. As a result, it was found that isomorphic coating with AlN-h phase of covalent interatomic bonds exhibits much better adhesion to the sialon substrate than isomorphic coating with titanium nitride TiN. These coatings assure the high wear resistance of the coated tools, and the high adhesion combined with the high microhardness and fine-grained structure assure an increase in the exploitative life of the coated tools. In the case of coatings on substrate made from sintered carbide, there was a significant influence on the properties of the tools coated with them as concerns the existence of the diffusion zone between the substrate and the coating.