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Synthesis, growth, structural, thermal and third order nonlinear optical properties of novel organic single crystal: 4-methylpyridinium 3-nitrophthalate

Abstract

A novel 4-methylpyridinium 3-nitrophthalate (4MP3NP) was synthesized and the crystals were grown by using slow evaporation method. The structural data of the grown crystal was collected by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It revealed that the 4MP3NP crystal belongs to triclinic crystal system with a space group P1. Structure of the synthesized compound was established using SHELXL 97 program package. The crystalline nature and composition of the grown crystal was established using high resolution X-ray diffraction and FT-IR analyses. UV-Vis transmittance and photoluminescence studies revealed the optical transmission window and electronic transition mechanism of ions, respectively. The laser damage threshold of the grown crystal was estimated by Nd:YAG laser and these results were mutually related to specific heat capacity of the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the grown crystal was studied by Z-scan technique.

Open access
Synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with controlled inner and outer diameters by ethylene decomposition over Ni/MgO and Co/MgO catalysts

Abstract

In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with significantly different mean diameters were produced by catalytic CVD over Ni and Co-based supported catalysts. Our results indicate that Ni nanoparticles in the Ni/MgO catalyst are responsible for controlling the inner diameters of the carbon nanotubes. Contrary, Co nanoparticles in the Co/MgO catalyst control the outer diameters of MWCNTs. The “base-growth” mechanism and smaller diameters of the MWCNTs grown on the Ni/MgO catalyst are associated with a strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) resulting from NixMg1−xO mixed oxide formation. The concept of the weak metal-support interaction (WMSI) between Co nanoparticles and MgO for the Co/MgO catalyst confirms the “tip-growth” mechanism of the MWCNTs.

Open access
Synthesis of NiO nanoparticles by sol-gel technique

Abstract

NiO nanoparticles were fabricated by sol-gel route using ammonium hydroxide and nickel nitrate as precursors. The NiO nanoparticles were calcinated at 400 °C and 1000 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetry analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The structural properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD confirmed the formation of well-crystallized and high purity NiO phase. The XRD showed that the peaks were sharpened and the crystallite size increased as the calcination temperature increased. The average crystallite size ranged from 12 nm to 20 nm, when calcined at temperatures 400 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed the chemical composition and confirmed the formation of NiO nanoparticles. The nanoparticles showed paramagnetic behavior.

Open access
Synthesis, sintering, specific heat and magnetism of Eu3S4 by low-temperature CS2-gas sulfurization of Eu2O3 nanospheres

Abstract

Single-phase Eu3S4 was obtained via CS2 gas sulfurization of Eu2O3 nanospheres at 773 K for longer than 0.5 h. The primary particle size of Eu3S4 became larger than that of Eu2O3 during the sulfurization process. Pure synthetic Eu3S4 powders were unstable and transformed to EuS at 873 K under vacuum. Eu3S4 compacts were sintered in temperature range of 773 K to 1173 K and they transformed to EuS at 1473 K during spark plasma sintering. Specific heat of sintered Eu3S4 did not show an anomalous behavior in the range of 2 K to 50 K. The magnetic susceptibility of polycrystalline Eu3S4 followed a Curie-Weiss law from 2 K to 300 K. Magnetization of polycrystalline Eu3S4 was larger than that of single crystal Eu3S4 when the magnetic field was less than 3.5 kOe.

Open access
Temperature dependence of the energy band gap of CuSi2P3 semiconductor using PSOPW method

Abstract

Theoretical formalism based on the orthogonalized plane wave method supplemented by a potential scaling scheme was used to predict the temperature dependence of energy gap of CuSi2P3 semiconductor. A computer code in Pascal was used to perform the variation of fundamental energy gap with temperature in the range of 150 K to 800 K. The dependence of energy gap on temperature for lattice dilation contribution, lattice vibration contribution and total temperature effect were performed separately. The results revealed that, as temperature increases, the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band increase, while the energy band gap decreases. Generally, at low temperatures, the energy gap varies slowly and exhibits a nonlinear dependence and approaches linearity as temperature increases. The calculated energy gap of CuSi2P3 at T = 300 K is 0.4155 eV. The temperature coefficients in the linear region due to lattice dilation contribution, lattice vibration contribution and total temperature effect were calculated as –1.101 × 10−5 eV/K, –1.637 × 10−4 eV/K and –1.7523 × 10−4 eV/K, respectively. Also, the ratio of temperature coefficient of the energy gap due to LV contribution to its value and LD contribution in the linear region is equal to 14.868. That ratio is compared to those of CuGe2P3 and III-V compounds, where those of the latter show a systematic change with Eg. Moreover, the Eg of all the compounds shows a quadratic dependence on the inverse of mean bond length.

Open access
The Universal Kriging Mapping of the Neogene EL-markers Rs5 and Δ, Northern Croatia

Abstract

The area of the Bjelovar Subdepression in Northern Croatia, which represents the southwestern part of Drava’s depression, has been analysed. More than 700 depth data were collected in a regular grid covering the existing structural maps of e-log markers Rs5, Z’ and Δ, with cells 2 x 2 km in size. For zonal assessment, Thiessen polygon method was used as introductory analysis preceding Kriging interpolation on regional scale. The emphasis was on OK and UK interpolation, their comparison and selection of most appropriate method for mapping. Crossvalidation results proved UK technique to be the most appropriate in mapping of e-log markers Rs5 and Δ, thus acquiring the most accurate maps so far of the analysed Neogene area.

Open access
Wire arc additive manufacturing of mild steel

Abstract

This paper presents an overview of additive manufacturing technologies for production of metal parts. A special attention is set to wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) technologies, which include MIG/MAG welding, TIG welding and plasma welding. Their advantages compared to laser or electron beam technologies are lower investment and operational costs. However, these processes have lower dimensional accuracy of produced structures. Owing to special features and higher productivity, the WAAM technologies are more suitable for production of bigger parts. WAAM technology has been used together with welding robot and a cold metal transfer (CMT) power source. Thin walls have been produced using G3Si1 welding wire. The microstructure and hardness of produced structures were analysed and measured. A research was done to determine the optimal welding parameters for production of thin walls with smooth surface. A SprutCAM software was used to make a code for 3D printing of sample part.

Open access
Development of a Method for Calculating the Working Blade Stress Profile of the Aviation Gas Turbine Engine for Student Training

Abstract

The paper presents a method of calculation gas turbine engine compressor or low-pressure turbine working blade profile for student training. This method of calculation was prepared for working blades with and without shroud shelves. This method provides a calculation technique to reduce the load on blade root part and the determination of blade profile stress distribution and the comparison before and after reduction of load.

Open access
Analysis of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS) Error Genesis

Abstract

Analysis and simulation of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS) error genesis revealed that the East Feedback Contour has the greatest influence on the development of an error in this model, and angular velocity sensor Δω𝒚 is the critical element. In order to prevent the development of an error, structural correction in the East Feedback Contour, and elements that are more critical, namely in angular velocity measurement sensors is the best option.

Open access
Assessment of the influences of climate variability on nitrogen leaching rate into groundwater

Abstract

This article presents preliminary model results of climate change impact on biogeochemical processes in soil. With the use of DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model, a simulation with climate data over seventy years period (1947-2016) from central part of Slovenia has been carried out. Amongst assessed sources of variability, time variability has been estimated to around 10% of the total annual nitrogen leaching. In some cases, a statistically significant downward trend was observed with a 5 kg reduction in nitrogen per hectare in seventy years period. This study represents the first quantitative assessment of nitrogen leaching variability due to precipitation and air temperature variability in three representative soil profiles in the central Slovenia. It offers a starting point for future regional research for the purpose of farming practice optimization, especially in catchment areas of major regional water resources in Slovenia.

Open access