Stratospheric balloons are very important sources for space and terrestrial observation experiments in many disciplines. Instruments developed for astrophysical measurements are usually reusable. It is also possible to observe both hemispheres including observations from the polar and equatorial regions for thirty days or even longer. On the other hand the UV atmospheric transmittance window was used for the astrophysical observations less often than visible optical bands. At the end of the 2017 there are a few scientific groups working on near-UV or UV spectrographs and cameras for balloon flights.
In this paper we are discussing the possibility of ultraviolet measurement of Enceladus, an icy Saturnian moon, surface reflectance between 200 and 400 nm from the 20-50 km altitudes. At visible and near infrared optical channels Enceladus’ reflectance is very high (near 1.0). This value is consistent with a surface composed of water ice, however at some ultraviolet wavelengths Enceladus reflectance is lower than it would be expected for this type of surface. The scientific research done in the last decade was focused on H2O, NH3, and tholin particles detection on the Enceladus’ surface as a reason of low UV reflectance phenomenon. Continuous observation of Enceladus’ UV reflectance variability from stratospheric balloons may be interesting and may give us the proof of the presence of biomarkers or/and tholin particles.
An aqueous colloidal solution was prepared at 80 °C and pH = 9 from suitable chemical compounds to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals and thin films. The ZnO crystals were grown in the colloidal solution under special conditions. Their micrographs showed ZnO rods with hexagonal structure. The number of the rods, increased over time. The ZnO thin films were produced on glass substrates in the same colloidal solution using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in different deposition times. The produced films were post-annealed for about one hour at 400 °C. Crystalline structure, phase transitions and nanostructure of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZnO wurtzite structure was dominant, and by increasing the deposition time, the films became more crystalline. Nanostructure of the films changed from rod to wire and transformed into pyramid-like structures. Also, morphology of the films changed and re-nucleation ocurred. Optical reflectance was measured in the wavelength of 300 nm to 800 nm with a spectrophotometer. Other optical properties and optical band gaps were calculated using Kramers-Kronig relation on reflectivity curves. Second harmonic generation was calculated by Z-scan technique. Nonlinear refraction and real part of susceptibilities were obtained. Both positive and negative nonlinear refractions appeared in the ZnO films. It is important for the use in optoelectronic devices. Electronic properties were assessed by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was used for the exchange-correlation potential calculation. The band gap structure and density of states were calculated.
Jian Chen, Xiongfei Li, Wei Li, Cong Li, Baoshan Xie, Shuowei Dai, Jian-Jun He and Yanjie Ren
Quasi-static uniaxial compressive tests of open-cell copper (Cu) foams (OCCF) were carried out on an in-situ bi-direction tension/compress testing machine (IBTC 2000). The effects of strain rate, porosity and pore size on the energy absorption of open-cell copper foams were investigated to reveal the energy absorption mechanism. The results show that three performance parameters of open-cell copper foams (OCCF), involving compressive strength, Young modulus and yield stress, increase simultaneously with an increase of strain rate and reduce with increasing porosity and pore size. Furthermore, the energy absorption capacity of OCCF increases with an increase of porosity and pore size. However, energy absorption efficiency increases with increasing porosity and decreasing pore size. The finite element simulation results show that the two-dimensional stochastic model can predict the energy absorption performance of the foam during the compressive process. The large permanent plastic deformation at the weak edge hole is the main factor that affects the energy absorption.
Supply Chain makes the flow of goods, services and information from suppliers, through transport, producers, distributors, retailers to end customers. Big producers opt for a strategy of outsourcing logistic services, especially storage, delivery, and distribution services to end-customers. Commitment to the strategy of outsourcing, at the same time, is the strategy of focus on the core business. Small producers, especially manufacturers of agricultural food products, have recently opted to avoid intermediaries in the transport and distribution of the product to the end customer. All in order to increase the quality of their own products and increase the competitiveness by eliminating the costs of intermediaries in transport and distribution. This is achieved by merging and shortening the supply chain. The EU has established an institutional framework regulating the operations of producers through a short supply chain. The market situation requires further optimization by producers due to lack of labour and the need to increase competitiveness and leads to the emergence of a reversible supply chain phenomenon. In the paper, the author, by applying general and special scientific methods of cognition, explores the advantages and shortcomings of the short and reversible supply chain, derived from the traditional and modern supply chain model.
European Commision adopted in July new regulations about laying down airspace usage requirements and operating procedures concerning performance based navigation. It is next step in realization of the the global program PBN ICAO. At the 36th General Assembly of ICAO held in 2007, the Republic of Poland agreed to ICAO resolution A36-23 which urges all States to implement PBN. In future aviation concepts the use of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) is considered to be a major Air Traffic Management (ATM) concept element. ICAO has drafted standards and implementation guidance for PBN in the ICAO Doc 9613 “PBN Manual”. The Based Performance Navigation Concept represents and shift from sensor-based to performance based navigation connected with criteria for navigation: accuracy, integrity, availability, continuity and functionality depending on the phase of the flight. Through PBN and changes in the communication, surveillance and ATM domain, many advanced navigation applications are possible to improve airspace efficiency, improve airport sustainability, reduce the environmental impact of air transport in terms of noise and emission, increase safety and improve flight efficiency.
Co–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites with chemical composition Co0:5Zn0:5Fe2O4 were synthesized by sol-gel and combustion methods. The sol-gel method was carried out in two ways, i.e. based on chelating agents PVA and PEG of high and low molecular weights. In auto-combustion method, the ratio of citric acid to metal nitrate was taken as 1:1, while in sol-gel method the chelating agents were taken based on oxygen balance. All the three samples were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis for the identification of phase formation and ferritization temperature. The synthesized samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy without any thermal treatment. The measured lattice constants and observed characteristic IR absorption bands of the three samples are in good agreement with the reported values showing the formation of a cubic spinel structure. The crystallite sizes of all samples were determined using high intensity peaks and W-H plot. Size-Strain Plot method was also implemented since two of the samples showed low crystallite sizes. The least crystallite size (5.5 nm) was observed for the sample CZVP while the highest (23.8 nm) was observed for the sample CZCA. Cation distribution was proposed based on calculated and observed intensity ratios of selected planes from X ray diffraction data. All structural parameters were presented using experimental lattice constant and oxygen positional parameter, and they correlated with FT-IR results. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature to obtain the characteristic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence, squareness ratio and Bohr magnetons. Among all, the sample synthesized via citric acid autocombustion method displayed a remarkably higher magnetization of 53 emu/g and the remaining two samples displayed low magnetization values owing to their smaller crystallite sizes.
Dysprosium doped strontium silicate phosphor namely (Sr2SiO4:Dy3+) was prepared by low-temperature solution combustion method using urea (CO(NH2)2) as a fuel. The material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, SEM and EDX. The average crystallite sizes was calculated by Scherer formula. Thermoluminescence study was carried out for the phosphor which showed single glow curve. The kinetic parameter were calculated by using Chen’s glow curve method. Photoluminescence spectra revealed strong transition at 473 nm (blue), 571 nm (yellow) and weak transition at 645 nm (red). These peaks were assigned to transition 4F9/2 →6H15/2, 13/2, 11/2. CIE graph of Sr2SiO4:Dy3+ phosphor is suitable for the generation of white light emission.
W. Christopher Immanuel, S. Paul Mary Deborrah, S.S.R. Inbanathan and D. Nithyaa Sree
Polycrystalline chalcogenide semiconductors play a vital role in solar cell applications due to their outstanding electrical and optical properties. Among the chalcogenide semi-conductors, CdZnS is one kind of such important material for applications in various modern solid state devices such as solar cells, light emitting diode, detector etc. Due to their applications in numerous electro-optic devices, group II-VI semiconductors have been studied extensively. In recent years, major attention has been given to the study of electrical and optical properties of CdZnS thin films. In this work, Cd1−xZnxS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique. Phase purity and surface morphology properties were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Chemical composition was studied using energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS). Optical band gap property was investigated using UV-Spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity studies were performed by two probe method and thermoelectric power setup (TEP) to determine the type of the material. This work reports the effect of Zn on structural, electrical, microstructural and optical properties of these films.
High doses of medical waste evidence that health waste management is problematic. A case study was conducted at various health institutions. This research analyzes various issues in the area of medical waste management. The research examines the perception of staff regarding medical waste management. The purpose of the study is to investigate the level of knowledge, attitudes and role of health practitioners in the management of medical waste.
Here the quality index and the environmental index of two health centers are studied; one is a private hospital and the other one a state hospital and compares these two indices with a questionnaire.
To provide environmentally friendly services, customers and environmental criteria have to be taken into account in the decision-making process and distributing the Green Quality Function provides a very useful way to achieve this goal.
Layered magnetic heterostructures are very promising candidates in spintronics in which the influences of interfaces, surfaces and defects play a crucial role. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study has been performed for studying in detail the chemical state and electronic structure of Co2FeAl (CFA) Heusler alloy interfaced with Si substrates. XPS survey scan spectra have clearly shown the presence of Fe, Co and Al signal along with the signal due to Si. The presence of Co, Fe and Al signal confirms the formation of CFA alloy phase. Our XPS results support our previous study  on CFA/Si structure in determining the magnetic and transport properties across the interface.