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Open access

S. Đorđe Marjanović, Danica Bogunović, Mirjana Milovanović, Darko Marinković, Nemanja Zdravković, Vladimir Magaš and M. Saša Trailović

Abstract

In the present study we tested the dose andh time dependence of the antinematodal effects of carvacrol and tyhmol on Caenorabditis elegans, and the efficacy of carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and cinnamaldehyde,which were administrated in the drinking water of rats naturally infected with the pinworm Syphacia muris. The control treatment of the infected rats was carried out with piperazine. Thymol caused a dose and time-dependent mortality in adult C. elegans. The value of the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) of thymol was 117.9nM after 24h and 62.89 nM after 48h of exposure. Carvacrol exhibited a higher antinematodal efficiency than thymol. The LC50 of carvacrol, after 24 hours of exposure, was 53.03 nM, while after 48 hours it was 33.83 nM. On the other hand, piperazine showed an extremely high efficacy against S. muris infection in rats. Piperazine, at a dose of 625 mg/kg bw, administered in drinking water continuously for 10 days, eliminates the infection completely. However, none of the investigated active ingredients of essential oils were effective against S. muris. The reason for the lack of efficiency may be due to their pharmacokinetic properties. A relatively low amount of, orally administered, active ingredients of essential oils reaches the distal segments of the gastrointestinal tract, where S. muris inhabits the gut (colon and cecum). The obtained results, on C. elegans, indicate a clear dose and time-dependent antinematodal effect of thymol and carvacrol. However, for clinical application, it is necessary to examine the efficacy of microencapsulated formulations with a controlled release of active ingredients of essential oils in certain parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

Open access

Saša Krstović, Anka Popović Vranješ, Anka Kasalica, Marija Jevtić and Igor Jajić

Summary

The aim of this study was to investigate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) transfer from naturally contaminated raw milk into cheese and whey, during the production of Livanjski cheese (hard cheese type). Raw milk samples were collected from 4 farms in Serbia. The samples were then tested for AFM1 content and were later used for hard cheese production. Four cheese samples were produced, and the matching whey samples were also collected. The milk samples included two samples containing AFM1 above the EU maximum level (0.077±0.009 and 0.118±0.008 µg/kg) and the other two samples below the maximum level of 0.05 µg/kg (0.021±0.002 and 0.034±0.004 µg/kg). Regarding AFM1 transfer into cheese from the milk samples containing AFM1 above the EU maximum level, the rate was approximately 4-fold (383% and 410%). On the other hand, in the cheese samples made from milk containing AFM1 below the EU maximum level, almost 10-fold levels of AFM1 content in milk were found (transfer rates of 934% and 961%). As for the whey samples, AFM1 levels were below the levels found in the milk samples (transfer rates of 78%, 74%, 68% and 57%). The difference in the transfer rates for the cheese made from the milk samples contaminated at different levels may indicate the possibility that the AFM1 transfer rate from milk into cheese depends on the content of this toxin in milk.

Open access

Elmira R. Rafikova

Abstract

A 14-d study was undertaken to test the acute toxicity of a new preparation Vetom 21.77 based on the predacious fungus Duddingtonia flagrans. A total of 40 healthy 5-day-old broiler chickens (Hubbard F15, 100 ± 5 g), that had previously gone through a required 5-days adaptation to the environment, were orally dosed with the drug for 5 consecutive days at different doses, after which their health status was assessed daily up to the end of the experiment. According to the results, no substantial changes in the physiological state of the chickens were detected during the experiment. Internal organs weighing revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups, though weight coefficient values of internal organs of treated chickens slightly exceeded those of the control group. Some haematological parameters were significantly higher in the treatment group, without going beyond reference ranges. All chickens used in the experiment survived the study. The preparation has not produced any toxic effect even at a higher dose (4000 μL/kg bw/day). It is concluded that Vetom 21.77 pertains to preparations of IV toxicity class.

Open access

Judit Pető, Attila Hüvely, András Palkovics and Viktor Vojnich

Abstract

The rural development grants - among others - help to promote the competitiveness of the agricultural activities. Plantations take great interest in the southeastern part of Hungary. Farmers need to make soil tests before plantation of fruit and grape. We investigated the distribution of the main physical characteristics in this area. For the establishment of vineyards, the areas were adequate according to the pH, and salt content. The results of the soil tests show some strong relationships between the determined physical parameters.

Open access

Myrtill Gráff, Edit Mikó, Bence Zádori and József Csanádi

Abstract

A total of 46 Swiss alpine does were examined. We analysed the composition of the milk and evaluated the body condition of the animals (BCS: 0.5 to 4.5 scale) on the same day in the last third of lactation. Goats were grouped according to their body condition for statistical calculations. We found that there was a statistically detectable relationship between body condition and milk composition of the goats. Together with the increase of BCS, the fat, protein and mineral contents in the milk increased as well. Significantly more fat, protein and mineral contents were found in the milk (6.01%;3.55%; 0,98%) in case of the well-conditioned (BCS 3.5) animals than in the thin ones (BCS 1.5-2) (4.56%, 3.11%, 0.77%) (P<5%). The concentration of milk sugar was similar between thin and better conditioned groups of animals, so the body condition did not affect these values. The importance of our study is that, the high fat and protein content of milk increases the yield of dairy products. If the animals can produce milk that has higher fat and protein content, than we can produce more dairy products that will bring more economic benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of body condition on milk yield and quality (milk composition) in dairy goats.

Open access

Nataša Ristić, Vladimir Ajdžanović, Dragana Petrović-Kosanović, Marko Miler, Gordana Ušćebrka and Verica Milošević

Abstract

Andropause, the culminating phase of male ageing, is characterized by deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis and low circulating free testosterone. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistomorphometric characteristics of the pituitary gonadotropic i.e. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) producing cells after testosterone application in a rat model of the andropause. Middle-aged Wistar rats were divided into orchidectomized (ORX; n=8) and testosterone treated orchidectomized (ORX+T; n=8) groups. Testosterone propionate (5 mg/kg b.m. /day) was administered for three weeks, while the ORX group received the vehicle alone. Immunohistochemically stained FSH and LH cells underwent morphometric and optical density-related analysis, while circulating concentrations of the sex steroids were measured by immunoassays. Serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol were significantly (p<0.05) increased by 24 and 2.7 fold respectively, compared to the ORX group. The volume of FSH and LH cells was significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 51.3% and 56.6% respectively, in comparison with ORX rats. Relative volume density of FSH and LH cells was also significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 54.0% and 72.8% respectively, compared to the ORX group. Results related to the optical density of gonadotropic cells (reflecting their hormonal content) were in line with the morphometric findings i.e. this parameter of FSH and LH cells was significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 25.7% and 16.2% respectively, in comparison with ORX rats. Conclusion: In conclusion, applied testosterone increased the serum concentrations of sex steroids, as well as it decreased morphometric parameters and optical density of gonadotropic cells in ORX rats.

Open access

Debora Groppetti, Alessandro Pecile, Stefano Frattini, Giulio Pagnacco and Silvana Arrighi

Abstract

The knowledge about ovarian physiology in small ruminants is still limited, especially when compared to other domestic species. Ovarian function in goats is mainly assessed by ultrasonographic techniques, whereas a quali-quantitative feature of the follicular and luteal structures throughout the reproductive cycle in naturally cycling goats is scarce. This study provides a detailed description of the functional morphology and size of 742 ovarian structures (follicles, corpora hemorrhagica and corpora lutea) in relation to the oestrus phase, the body weight and the age of 25 Alpine goats (Capra hircus). The current study demonstrated that, the number and size of the follicles were related to the stage of the reproductive cycle (P < 0.0001). Also, the mean number of follicles was high during both prepubertal anestrus and diestrus, whereas it was low in the oestrus. Large (3-4 mm in diameter) and very large follicles (> 4 mm) (P < 0.001), and small follicles (< 2 mm; P < 0.05) varied throughout the reproductive cycle, while medium follicles (2-3 mm) were invariably observed. Large and very large follicles were predominant during the diestrus phase and small follicles in the prepubertal anestrus. It is evident from the current study that the number of follicles (P < 0.05) was significantly affected with both body weight and age. On the other hand, the size of follicles was significantly affected with body weight only (P < 0.0001). These results could contribute to a deeper understanding of ovarian transformations with important implications in assisted reproductive technologies, thereby concurring in advancing the efficiency of ultrasound in breeding programs for this species.

Open access

Jaroslav Andreji, Petr Dvořák and Martin Fik

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and Hg in the muscle, hepatopankreas, kidney and gonads of European chub (Squalius cephalus) from the middle course of the Nitra River, during spring and autumn seasons by AAS method. The concentrations of metals (mg.kg-1 wet weight) in the muscle ranged as follows: Ni 0.15-1.18, Co 0.09-0.58, Pb 0.39-1.66, Cd 0.04-0.29, Hg 0.85-2.71. Statistically significant differences among individual tissues, as well as between seasons have been recorded. Higher metals concentrations were detected in inner organs than in muscle. Permissible limits for safe consumption in the case of Pb, Cd and Hg have been exceeded in 100%, 95% and 100%, respectively. Currently, for the Co and Ni are not set any permissible limits.

Open access

Sukru Kirkan, Ugur Parin and Gamze Balat

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant and Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from urine samples of dogs. A total of 22 Enterococcus sp. samples were isolated and identified from 100 urine samples collected by cystocentesis from dogs of both sexes. The identification with species specific primers for multiplex PCR revealed that all 22 isolates (100%) belonged to E. faecium. Vancomycin resistance was found in 10 (45%) samples of E. faecium strains with PCR study by vanA and vanB primers.

Open access

Marcin Michałek, Piotr Frydrychowski, Jakub Adamowicz, Agnieszka Sławuta, Urszula Pasławska and Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak

Abstract

Introduction

Ventricular rhythm disturbances are a common pathology in human and veterinary medicine. In humans, the algorithmic approach is used to differentiate wide QRS complex tachycardia. The most commonly used are the aVR and Brugada algorithms as well as the ventricular tachycardia (VT) score developed by Jastrzębski and coworkers. In veterinary medicine, no such algorithms are available and the only parameter used to describe VT abnormalities is the duration of the QRS complexes. The aim of this analysis was determining whether human medicine algorithms for VT are applicable in veterinary medicine to differentiate wide QRS complex tachycardia in dogs.

Material and Methods

A retrospective analysis was performed on 11 dogs of both sexes and various breeds and age diagnosed with VT. The diagnosis was based on ambulatory ECG, further established based on the reaction to lidocaine or adenosine or an invasive electrophysiological study.

Results

Of the 11 tracings passed through the aVR algorithm, 10 met the VT criteria. The most common criterion was the Vi/Vt ratio (8 out of 11 tracings). Based on the VT score, seven out of eight dogs had a high probability of VT.

Conclusion

Retrospective analysis of ECGs by aVR and VT score indicates that the applied algorithms may be useful in differentiating wide QRS complex tachycardia as a quick, easy, and non-invasive alternative to cardiac electrophysiology.