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Hospitalization of a child in the Neonatal Intensive Care – parents’ experiences


Introduction. Significant progress in the perinatal and intensive care therapy resulted in a meaningful increase of survival of extremely immature, and burdened with severe diseases neonates. Although infants are the patients of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the needs of their parents should also be noticed and realized. The aim of the study was the analysis of the parents’ experiences of children hospitalized in the NICU.

Material. The research material comprises 39 written contributions of parents of children hospitalized in the NICU.

Method. A qualitative analysis of the text was used. Quotes of parents were classified in three categories: emotions, thoughts and support.

Results. Fear, happiness, joy, uncertainty, stress and shock are the most frequently emotions appearing in the parents’ reports. The most frequently mentioned areas of cognitive reactions of parents include: realization of child’s mortality, realizing problems of the premature birth, search for the guilty, and the reformulation of looking at the world. Parents often described support they received, but also pointed to the areas where support lacked.


  1. As a result of intense emotions, both positive and negative tint that parents experience at birth of a premature or sick child, multi-disciplinary care is necessary in order to reduce the negative effects of experienced emotions.
  2. Support, including information support for parents of critically ill newborns is a key skill in the practice of doctors taking care of children hospitalized in NICU.
  3. Psychological support is an essential element of the holistic care of the neonate’s family.

Open access
Mechanisms promoting and inhibiting the process of proteasomal degradation of cells


Defects in the process of degradation of unneeded cellular proteins underlie many diseases. This article discusses one of the most important systems of removal of abnormal proteins. It describes the process of ubiquitination of proteins for proteasome degradation. It also describes the structure of the 26S and 20S proteasomes and the mechanism of ubiquitin-proteasome system. Proteasome proteolytic system is highly specialized and organized. Protease-proteasome 26S is particularly important for proper cell functioning. It recognizes and degrades marked proteins. Inhibition of proteasome pathway leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

Efficient degradation of cellular proteins by UPS (the ubiquitin - proteasome system) - is important for signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, response to stress and the activity control of cell receptors.

The development of many diseases has its origin in the dysfunction of the UPS route. This group includes diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, immune-mediated diseases and infectious diseases. Development of effective methods for pharmacological intervention in the functioning of this system has become a great challenge. The use of specific, low molecular-weight proteasome inhibitors and enzymes catalyzing the ubiquitination gives hope for new, targeted therapies.

Open access
Use of psychoactive substances, body image and characteristics of personality traits in bodybuilders


The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive substances use as well as the characteristics of body image, self-image, narcissism and stress coping strategies in the group of male professional bodybuilders.

Material and method. The study comprised a group 30 male bodybuilders practising bodybuilding professionally for over 7 years and 30 men who did not practise any sport.

The following research methods were used in the study: Socio-demographic Questionnaire and Eating Disorders and Self-image Survey Questionnaire in Men designed by Pawłowska and Staniewicz, Coping with Stress Questionnaire by Janke, Erdmann, Boucsein, Narcissism Questionnaire by Deneke, Hilgenstock, Müller, Adjective Check List by Gough and Heilbrun in the authorised translation by Płużek.

Results. As compared to the control group, bodybuilders significantly more often use psychoactive agents and have a more negative body image and self-image and show intensified narcissism.

Conclusions: In comparison to the control group:

  1. Significantly more bodybuilders use psychoactive agents: marijuana, amphetamine and ephedrine.
  2. Bodybuilders are characterised by a significantly more negative body image related to the impression of having excessive fat tissue and not sufficient muscle tissue and intensified pursuing to obtain social acceptance.
  3. Bodybuilders are characterised by a significantly more intensified need for dominance, aggression, competitiveness, breaking social rules, being rebellious, impulsive and confrontational.
  4. Bodybuilders are characterised by significantly more intensified narcissistic traits.
  5. Bodybuilders, while in a stressful situation, express compensatory conviction of having better than other people skills to cope with difficulties.

Open access