Browse

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 121 items for :

  • Biotechnology x
  • Microbiology and Virology x
Clear All
Open access

S. Flešárová and D. Maženský

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the arterial arrangement of the cervical spinal cord in the hare using the corrosion technique. The study was carried out on 10 adult European hares (Lepus Europeus). The arterial system of the cervical spinal cord was injected using Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17. The fusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries was found in 70% of the cases without a connecting branch and in 30% of the cases with one connecting branch just posterior to the fusion. The ventral spinal artery was in connection with the right vertebral artery in 60% of the cases and by means of an anastomosis of two spinal branches arising from the bilateral vertebral arteries in 40% of the cases. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that there is a high variability of the blood supply to the cervical part of the spinal cord in the hare.

Open access

K. Reiterová, S. Špilovská and A. Čobádiová

Abstract

We tested the sera or meat juices of 215 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), collected during 2009-2014 at different localities of Eastern Slovakia for the presence of anti- Toxoplasma and anti-Neospora antibodies. We also examined the brains or muscle tissues and uncoagulated blood samples for the presence of both parasite’s DNA. The mean seropositivity to T. gondii was 72.6% (95% Confidence Interval CI 66.1-78.4) and to N. caninum 33.9% (95% CI 27.7-40.7). We observed higher Toxoplasmaseropositivity in adults (71.1%) than in juveniles (60.0%). Neospora-seropositivity was almost the same in both age groups about of 30%. In general, we observed less frequently the DNA of parasites, T. gondii (14.5%) and N. caninum (20.3%) in the tissue samples and uncoagulated blood samples. Coccidioses are considerably common in red foxes and circulate in locations of Eastern Slovakia. The high infection rate in foxes is probably due to their infected prey. On the other hand, the contamination of the environment with oocysts and their subsequent transfer to other farm and wild animals is also possible.

Open access

I. Šulla, V. Balik, J. Petrovičová, V. Almášiová, K. Holovská and Z. Oroszová

Abstract

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) with their tragic consequences belong to the most serious pathological conditions. That is why they have stimulated basic research workers, as well as health care practitioners, to search for an effective treatment for decades. Animal experimental models have been essential in these efforts. We have jointly decided to test and standardize one of the spinal cord injury compression models in rats. Twentythree adult female Wistar rats weighing 250-320 g were utilized. Employing general anaesthesia along with a mixture of sevoflurane with O2, 2 rats (sham controls) had their vertebral arch of either Th8 or Th9 vertebra removed (laminectomy). The other 21 experimental rats with similar laminectomies were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 7) which received compression impact forces of 30, 40 or 50 g (subgroups-1, -2, and -3, respectively) applied on their exposed spinal medulla for 15 minutes. All rats were observed for 28 days after the experimental procedure and their motor functions were assessed by the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) test 6 hours, 7, 21 and 28 days after the simulated SCI. All 23 rats survived the surgical procedures. The control rats were without any neurological deficits. There were, in every experimental subgroup, 1 or 2 rats with extreme BBB scores. So the rats with the maximum and minimum BBB values were excluded. Then, the results acquired in the residual 5 rats in each group were averaged and statistically analysed by the Tukey multiple comparisons test. Statistically significant intersubgroup differences were found at all survival times equal to or longer than 7 post SCI days. The goal of the SCI experiment was to generate a reproducible and reliable, submaximal spinal cord trauma model. The statistical analyses demonstrated that this objective was best achieved in the subgroup-2 with the 40 g compression.

Open access

J. Pivko, P. Makovický, A. Makarevich, A. Sirotkin, P. Makovický and E. Kubovičová

Abstract

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the histochemical and histopathological alterations in the livers of cows with a tendency to become emaciated (body condition score - BCS1 and 2) and a tendency to become fattened (BCS4 and 5) in comparison to the cows of average body condition (BCS3) presented as a control. The histochemical analysis (PAS reaction) showed that the influence of emaciation and fattening in our study was manifested by a decreased occurrence of glycogen and a decreased level of the PAS-positive matter in the hepatocytes of dairy cows with BCS1, 2, 4 and 5. An abundant accumulation of lipids in the form of large lipid droplets, liposomes and lipoproteins observed in the hepatocytes of emaciated and fattened (BCS1 and 5) cows may be related to moderate-severe steatosis. These observations suggest a relationship between liver steatosis and the occurrence of lipoproteins in cows with a tendency toward emaciation and fattening.

Open access

K. O. Soetan, I. A. Adedara and E. O. Farombi

Abstract

Nutrition constitutes an essential aspect of health care in both humans and other animals. Despite the numerous studies conducted on Lablab purpureus seeds, there is a paucity of information on its effects on hepatic and renal antioxidant status. The present study investigated the influence of three varieties of Lablab purpureus seeds (Rongai Brown, Rongai White and Highworth Black) on hepatorenal antioxidant status in male Wistar rats. Group I (control) rats were fed with the standard rat chow for 14 days while Groups II, III and IV rats were separately fed with feed containing the Rongai Brown, Rongai White and Highworth Black for 14 days, respectively. Lablab purpureus caused a significant decrease in renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) but increased hepatic SOD activity along with increased catalase, glutathione- S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activities in both liver and renal tissues when compared with the control. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the hepatic glutathione (GSH) level with concomitant elevation in hepatic and renal hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels in all Lablab purpureus-fed rats. Lablab purpureus-fed rats demonstrated significant elevations in serum marker enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase along with increases in urea and creatinine levels. Histopathologically, kidney sections revealed normal renal architecture, whereas treatment-related lesions were identified in the liver of Lablab purpureus-fed rats. This study concluded that consumption of raw Lablab purpureus seeds induced hepatorenal toxicity in rats via the induction of oxidative stress.

Open access

A. B. Ayinmode and J. O. Abiola

Abstract

The consumption of undercooked meat by humans is a potential infectious source for Toxoplasmosis. This study was aimed at finding potential infectious sources of Toxoplasma gondii for humans by investigating the seroprevalence of T. gondii in animals slaughtered in the Ibadan municipal abattoir. Serum samples from 1337 slaughtered animals (477 cattle, 267 sheep, 139 goats, and 454 pigs) were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Serological studies using the ELISA method demonstrated the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs as 38.9%, 1.9%, 3.6% and 45.2%, respectively. Univariate statistical analysis detected an association between T. gondii seropositivity and sheep, goat and sex (P < 0.05). In the multivariate logistic regression model, only sheep, goats and pigs had an association with T. gondii seropositivity, while sex was a confounding factor. The detection of varying levels of antibodies to T. gondii infection in these food animals highlights their potential as a source of T. gondii for humans. Efforts should, therefore be directed at preventing the infection during the production and the processing of meat for food.

Open access

V. Ledecky, M. Hluchy, T. Liptak and M. Kuricova

Abstract

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common disease representing an important problem for many dog breeds worldwide. The screening for CHD and breeding programs have been ongoing for many decades but the incidence of disease have failed to be reduced to the expected level. The early diagnosis of CHD is paramount in order to facilitate the early management strategies and to prevent the breeding of the affected individuals. Generally in this area, the emphasis is placed on the radiographic evaluation process, however this is partly a subjective process suggested to be influenced by the experience of the observers. This study was designed to evaluate the interobserver agreement in CHD evaluation based on the Federation Cynologique International system (FCI system). Ten original radiographs were sent to five different groups of observers, from students to certified veterinarians. They were asked to evaluate the ventro-dorsal radiographs according to the FCI system which is the most common system used in Europe to give the final grades (A, B, C, D, E). The grades were converted to numbers and the data were analysed using a one-way ANOVA test. The results showed that only in 20% of the cases, the interobserver agreement was statistically higher in the group of the most experienced observers when compared to the less experienced group of observers. This means that the level of experience does not always lead to a higher agreement. This could be a problem of widespread objective evaluations of CHD. In addition, there are several different systems of evaluation used in various countries. It is necessary to understand the intention of dog owners, who when buying a dog may be planning its first breeding. Therefore, the “correct” or “incorrect” assessment of the CHD radiographs may not always result in the elimination of affected individuals. We do not know exactly the situation of the development of the hip in some breeds, because scrutineers are receiving only “negative radiographs” for evaluation. Many owners are very educated about hip and elbow dysplasia. It is a time to tell the scientific truth.

Open access

E. Marettová

Abstract

The perineurium constitutes the basis for the regulation of endoneurial fluid homeostasis. In the work presented here, cytokeratin 18, as an immunohistochemical marker for epithelial cells, was used to identify the perineurium in the peripheral nerves of two species. Two organs, rich in peripheral nerves, were used; the tongue of the bull and the ductus deferens of the male goat. Special attention was paid to one of the the nerve sheath cells - the perineurial cells of myelinated nerves in the skeletal muscle of the tongue and in the smooth muscle in the wall of the ductus deferens. A positive reaction to cytokeratin 18 was found in the perineurial cells of the perineurial sheath in the nerves of various sizes. No difference in the reactivity was observed between the peripheral nerves of the tongue and that of the ductus deferens.

Open access

J. Novotný, P. Reichel, B. Kósa and D. Šipoš

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the excretion of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) via milk, urine and faeces during the lactation period of sows. Six clinically healthy lactating sows (crossbreed Large White × Landrace) were selected for these experiments and were housed in standard conditions and fed with commercially prepared dry mixture for this category of sows. The blood serum, milk, urine and faecal samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of lactation. During four weeks of lactation, we recorded the relatively stable and physiological concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Na in blood serum. The analysis of the sow’s milk showed the highest concentration of Ca and P at the end of lactation, while the highest concentration of Mg and Na was observed on the 7th lactation day. The following macro-mineral excretion was recorded in urine: 98.83-194.00 mg.l-1 for Ca; 11.88- 53.09 mg.l-1 for P; 171.67-344.05 mg.l-1 for Mg; and 56.50-74.83 mg.l-1 for Na; and in the faeces, 1824.5- 3045.5 mg.kg-1 for Ca; 1566.93-2483.2 mg.kg-1 for P; 1916.2-2505.2 mg.kg-1 for Mg; and 516.8-748.2 mg. kg-1 for Na.

Open access

S. Flešárová and D. Maženský

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical arrangement of the branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta abdominalis in the rabbit and the hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. After polymerization of the casting medium, the maceration was carried out in a KOH solution. We found different variations in; the number of arteries, level of their origin and arrangement. The aa. lumbales of the same level arose by means of a common trunk or their origin was independent. The aa. lumbales VI or aa. lumbales VI et VII originated also from the a. sacralis mediana. By aa. lumbales we found an important interspecies difference in; number, diameter, ramification and density of dorsal branches, which are designated for the dorsal muscles of the body stem. All listed parameters of branches were higher in the hare. This anatomical arrangement of dorsal branches is adapted to the higher movement activity of the hare. According to our results, it can be concluded that the anatomical arrangement of the branches of the aorta abdominalis shows a higher number of variations in the domesticated rabbit in comparison with the hare.