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Farid Agushybana, Issara Siramaneerat, Arga Nugraha, Sarinthorn Mungkhamanee, Sawanya Siriphakhamongkhon and Jadsada Udompittayason

Abstract

The fertility rate (TFR) has decreased from around 5.6 births per woman in 1967 to around 2.4 births today. This study examined the desired number of children and related factors among adolescents in Indonesia in order to clarify expected fertility behavior. This study employed the data from a national survey of National Medium Term Development Plan 2015 (RPJMN 2015). This paper involved unmarried adolescences aged 15-24. The selected respondents were 37,538 persons. The multiple linear regression was applied to predict the model. The result showed that the majority of respondents were female, aged 15-16 years old, mostly senior high school level, had been out of school, unemployed, and lived in rural areas of Java, Bali and Sumatra. The average desired number of children was 2.46, with a 0.86 standard deviation. The multiple linear regression showed that sex, age, education level, working status, contraceptive knowledge, and living in rural and various regions significantly influenced the number of expected children. In conclusion, the majority of respondents expressed their desire to have only one or two children in the future. However, in consideration of the fact that what one desires does not always reflect reality, the risk of falling fertility is generally present. Policymakers on family planning need to be aware of this issue and should identify key issues in childbirth policy to support families in having a reasonable amount of children.

Open access

Ana Rusta

Abstract

In this essay importance will be given to the traditional and contemporary conception of the rural-urban divide. The traditional approach influenced by a hegemonic perspective has seen rural as urban residual by believing in the idea of a clear division between urban and rural, driven by demographic, cultural and economic factors. But today's empirical research in different fields, reflecting strong local and global dynamics, proves that the split between rural and urban is impossible. The change of these realities at the local and global scale has influenced the development of a thesis that reformulates the urban/rural relation under the perspective of a continuum, hybrid or liminal state. Today's urban research backs the idea that it is impossible to define once and for all what is rural and urban. Concrete cases taken in Europe and in Albania prove that the existence of realities with particular typology not only makes the existence of a general and universally accepted definition problematic, but also creates the need for a continuous, dynamic, and temporary re-definition of urban and rural.

Open access

Veronica Akwenabuaye Undelikwo and Ebingha Erena Enang

Abstract

One of the greatest challenges confronting the government in Nigeria today is the need to reduce infant and child morbidity and mortality in order to achieve the sustainable development goal 2030. Infant mortality is generally used to describe the death of infants or babies that were born alive but died before their first birthday. There is generally marked inequality in infant death between developed and developing nations but also within them. Culture has been found to influence the health of the people especially in developing countries where majority of the people are traditionally oriented and superstitious. Several cultural values, beliefs and practices have considerable influence on the health behaviour of Nigerians, which has been adopted by pregnant women, and carried over to their children resulting in infant mortality. These cultural beliefs and practices are some of the major reasons for the low patronage of antenatal health care and orthodox medicine. People have remained bound to cultural beliefs and values. People tend to view events of diseases and deaths from the cultural and supernatural perspective, thereby causing mothers to stick to traditional and cultural practices in health matters. The paper is purely theoretical and relied heavily on secondary data and relevant literature on the issue under consideration. The paper calls for adequate awareness and enlightenment especially in areas where cultural practices are very ingrained and where infant mortality is high due to these practices.

Open access

Eric Che Muma

Abstract

Since the introduction of democratic reforms in post-independent Africa, most states have been battling corruption to guarantee sustainable peace, human rights and development. Because of the devastating effects of corruption on the realisation of peace, human rights and sustainable development, the world at large and Africa in particular, has strived to fight against corruption with several states adopting national anti-corruption legislation and specialised bodies. Despite international and national efforts to combat corruption, the practice still remains visible in most African states without any effective accountability or transparency in decision-making processes by the various institutions charged with corruption issues. This has further hindered global peace, the effective enjoyment of human rights and sustainable development in the continent. This paper aims to examine the concept of corruption and combating corruption and its impact on peace, human rights and sustainable development in post-independent Africa with a particular focus on Cameroon. It reveals that despite international and national efforts, corruption still remains an obstacle to global peace in Africa requiring a more proactive means among states to achieve economic development. The paper takes into consideration specific socio-economic challenges posed by corruption and the way forward for a united Africa to combat corruption to pull the continent out of poverty, hunger and instability, and to transform it into a better continent for peace, human rights and sustainable development.

Open access

Shadiya Mohamed S. Baqutayan, Aini Suzana Ariffin, Magda Ismail A. Mohsin and Akbariah Mohd Mahdzir

Abstract

Waqf plays a very important role in Muslim societies. It has been the main source for various public services provided to communities. It has been marginalized as a mere charity, although it has historically been successful in producing sustainable income and reducing poverty levels in Muslim countries. Traditionally, the creation of Waqf is inculcated in Muslims’ culture, and included all walks of life. It has also contributed to the service of man in various areas of development. Nonetheless, in modern times, Waqf has seen a declining role, which raises a number of questions as to what factors actually led to an earlier growth of Waqf, and what was the factor associated with its later decline. This review propagates a historical narrative of Waqf, highlighting the reasons for its decline and the need for reform. The paper concludes that if Muslims have good governments that can manage the funds are transparent, reformulates the laws governing Waqf, and design an integrated network of sciences to monitor issues and problems; they can realistically revive the practice of Waqf. The proper management and disbursement of Waqf can become a great source of revenue for the Ummah.

Open access

Olivera Iskrenovic-Momcilovic

Abstract

This paper describes advantages of using computers in teaching, but also problems that occur, as well as possibilities for their elimination. The main goal of the research is the formation of images which show the use of computers in higher education. The paper presents the results of a survey conducted among students of the Faculty of Education in Sombor (Serbia) about the use of computers in teaching. A sample of 126 respondents comprises students of the last year of all study programs. The results show that students and professors have a positive attitude about using computers in education and knowledge dissemination through computers. Most of them think that teachers have mastered basic computer knowledge, but give priority to teachers who know how to work with a computer, as well as to younger teachers. Students believe that many barriers occur during the use of computers, among which the most important is the inaccessibility of technical equipment. All barriers can be overcome through useful and practical computer seminars.

Open access

Bruna Papa and Ervin Demo

Abstract

Albanian higher education sector has undergone various changes in the last years. Such changes have brought different implication and challenges for higher education institutions. HEIs need to find new and innovative ways to be able to respond properly and play their role in the society. This paper aims to provide an evaluation of the staus quo of 5 public higher education instituions, that took part in the study, in regard to 6 aspects of the entrepreneurial university model.Interviews were conducted using HEInnovate tool as a theoretical guideline and questions were asked by being grouped in 6 categories: on aspects such as governance and lidership, internationalization, knowledge exchange, human and financial resources, entrepreneurial education and start up support and measures, were conducted in order to have a general overview and identify potential areas of improvement. Entrepreneurship needs to be supported and formilazed by the top lidership and effective organizational structure that promotes entrepreneurshop at all levels of the institution, financial stream needs to be diversified, blended learning needs to be encourgaed and promoted and public HEIs need to increase their international cooperation and presence. The study shows that HEIs need to implement new practies in order to better be prepared to face the current and future challenges. The findings and recommendation can be used to present measures to be undertaken both at institutional level of HEIs and at the level of policy makers in Albania.

Open access

Ibrahim Nji Ngouhouo and Samuel Honoré Ntavoua

Abstract

The main objective of this research is to locate channels through which public investment can be forwarded in order to impact economic growth in the CEMAC sub-region. To achieve this goal, a dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) and the two-stage least squares (TSLS) methods have been applied. Data to test our two hypotheses were collected from various sources. The results have shown that there effectively exist significant direct and indirect effects of public investment on economic growth. We also discovered that export and employment are being considered as the last shackles of the chain. To that effect, it is recommended to the CEMAC authorities to grant more interest to these variables during the elaboration of public investment policies.

Open access

Derling José Mendoza Velazco and Jenniz La Madriz

Abstract

The didactics from its educational perspective, is located in the axis of reflection and theoretical operational projection, from the edge of interaction and communication, between the being of education and the dissimilar educational models. Therefore, the present study is based on generating a theoretical approach that arises from the practice of university professors. In this case, the Universidad Iberoamericana del Ecuador (UNIB.E) will be used as the research scenario. As a first objective, the didactic models that are frequent in the practice of university professors were analyzed. The second objective of the study was to interpret the relationship between the explicit theories, and those of common use, that university professors develop in their practice. To this end, the researchers carried out qualitative research based on the interpretative-hermeneutic paradigm, using a method of analysis and ethnographic study. Structured interviews and observations, both validated through expert judgement, were used as data collection techniques. Based on the information obtained, the importance of strengthening the didactic training of some teachers was detailed as important manifestations. Highlighting the conceptualization and effective application of the different models that arise in the andragogical practices of higher education.

Open access

Av. Eni Cobani and Engjëllushe Zenelaj

Abstract

The mediation process is a relatively new form in the legal treatment of legal disputes in Albania. The mediation process is the forerunner of solving a conflict between the parties, and unites them for a unanimous request to the court. The media as the fourth power plays a powerful role in addressing many social and state processes. The role of the media in the overall development of society has already been highlighted, and today in the era of information technology, of course, the media for such delicate issues plays a huge role. The purpose of the article is to highlight the role of media treatment or mediatisation of the mediation process as well as the analysis of the consequences of this process. Mediated cases mediated in the media are accompanied by various reactions, both from the official side of the institutions, which are directly or indirectly affected, but also from the public opinion. Like the nature of legal conflicts, social conflicts are also endless. Often legal complications are even worse because of disagreements between individuals, even when they pursue the same goal.