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Present state and applications of single drop microextraction for the determination of harmful organic compounds and pollutants

Abstract

Single drop microextraction (SDME) nowadays earns an increasing attention by scientists due to its simplicity, low cost and the need for only common laboratory equipment. This microextraction technique combines sample cleanup and pre-concentration of analytes in one step. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the amount of organic solvents needed comparing to standard LLE techniques places SDME into the position of environmental friendly extraction techniques. SDME is a straightforward technique in which a micro-drop of solvent is suspended from the tip of a conventional micro-syringe and then it is in a direct contact with a sample solution in which it is immiscible or it could be suspended in the headspace above the sample. The paper overviews developments of the state-of-the-art SDME techniques for the extraction of harmful organic compound and pollutants from environmental, food and biological matrices. Key extraction parameters essential for SDME performance were described and discussed.

Open access
Batch removal of Pb (ΙΙ) ions from aqueous medium using gamma-Al2O3 nanoparticles/ethyl cellulose adsorbent fabricated via electrospinning method: An equilibrium isotherm and characterization study

Abstract

The aim of the present work is to study the efficiency of a biocompatible polymer-based adsorbent for the removal of Pb (II) ions whose devastating effects on people’s health is a matter of great concern from aqueous solution. In this study, ethyl cellulose and gamma-Al2O3 nanoparticles/ethyl cellulose electrospun adsorbents were prepared for the batch removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solution. Both samples were characterized using contact angle analysis, N2 adsorption/desorption technique, FT-IR and SEM. The Freundlich model (R-square = 0.935 and RMSD (%) = 6.659) and the Dubinin-Radushkevich model (R-square = 0.944 and RMSD (%) = 6.145) were found to be more reliable in predicting the experimental data from the adsorption of Pb (II) ions onto the electrospun gamma-Al2O3 nanoparticles/ethyl cellulose than the Langmuir model (R-square = 0.685 and RMSD (%) = 14.61) and also the Temkin model (R-square = 0.695 and RMSD (%) = 14.38).

Open access
Carbon nanotubes with controlled length – preparation, characterization and their cytocompatibility effects

Abstract

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have attracted huge attention due to their multifunctionality. Their unique properties allows for covalent and noncovalent modifications. The most simple method for functionalization of carbon nanotubes is their decoration with the oxygen containing moieties which can be further simultaneously functionalized for design of new class carriers for targeting and imaging. Here, we present methodology for chopping nanotubes, characterization of MWCNTs, the effect of size on the biocompatibility in culture of L929 mouse fibroblasts using WST-1, LDH and apoptosis assays. The analysis provides the optimal carbon nanotubes length and concentration which can be used for functionalization in order to minimize the effect of the secondary agglomeration when interacting with cells.

Open access
Degradation of sertraline in water by suspended and supported TiO2

Abstract

Pharmaceutical pollutants have been detected in many countries in surface and ground water after treatment in wastewater treatment plants. The presented studies concern the photocatalytic removal of one of SSRI antidepressants - sertraline from water using TiO2 photocatalyst. The process was conducted using two laboratory installations with periodic and flow reactors. Two forms of TiO2 was used in the photocatalytic reactions: suspended and supported onto a glass fabric. The studies shown that with increasing initial concentration of pharmaceutical, photoactivity decreases. For the initial concentration of 0.025 g/dm3, the best results – 94% removal – was achieved for the process conducted in the periodic reactor with TiO2 supported onto a glass fabric.

Open access
Experiment and prediction of water content of sour natural gas with an modified cubic plus association equation of state

Abstract

In this work, new experimental value for water content in sour natural gas were reported. In addition, to predict the water content in sour natural gas, a modified cubic plus association equation of state (CPA-EoS) was also proposed. In this model, a new energy parameter a was proposed to make an accurate description of saturated liquid density. Additionally, a temperature dependent binary interaction parameter kij for six binary systems was also obtained. Lastly, a comparison between the prediction results of the modified CPA-EoS and the experimental data was presented, and the results showed that the modified CPA-EoS could predict the water content in sour natural gas with high accuracy, which has an AAD of 3.6722% with experimental data in literatures and an AAD of 1.946% for experimental data reported in this work.

Open access
Extraction of rubidium and cesium from brine solutions using a room temperature ionic liquid system containing 18-crown-6

Abstract

Application of 1-butyl-3-metyhlimidazaolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4mim][PF6]), in the extraction of rubidium and cesium from brine solutions using 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane (18C6) as extractant was investigated. Parameters that affect the extraction including pH of aqueous phase, equilibration time, dosage of the ionic liquid, phase ratio, concentration of 18C6 were studied. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of rubidium ions and cesium ions were up 84.11% and 94.99%, respectively. The stripping of alkali metal ions from the loaded organic phase with different stripping agents and concentrations were also investigated. The initial value of the K/Cs and K/Rb ratios were 93.0 and 104.3, respectively, which have dropped 91.21% and 88.01%, respectively, after the extraction and stripping experiments. It was taken a big step in the separation and enrichment of cesium (rubidium) ion and potassium ion. The extraction mechanism was revealed most likely to be a cation exchange mode in this system.

Open access
Metals uptake behaviour in Miscanthus x giganteus plant during growth at the contaminated soil from the military site in Sliač, Slovakia

Abstract

Peculiarities of metals uptake by the biofuel crop Miscanthus x giganteus were explored during plant growth at soil from the military site (Sliač, Slovakia). The experiment was carried out in greenhouse during two vegetation seasons. Research soil was predominantly elevated in Fe and Ti, while other metals (As, Cu, Mn, Sr, Zn and Zr) were presented at order of magnitude lower concentrations. No inhibition of plant growth was observed. The calculated Bioconcentration Factor showed that levels of metals’ accumulation by plant roots, stems and leaves were independent of metals’ concentrations in the soil. The accumulation of metals by stems and leaves was much lower than by roots. As, Zr, Ti were almost not accumulated by stems and leaves during both seasons; accumulation of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Sr was not essential which confirmed that biomass of M. x giganteus might be processed for the energy purpose.

Open access
Modification of substandard EPDM with amorphous thermoplastic polyesters (PETG and PEF): microstructure and physical properties

Abstract

The phase morphology, thermal behavior and mechanical properties of two series of polymer blends based on ethylene/propylene/diene rubber (EPDM) and amorphous homologues of poly(ethylene terephthalate), i.e. glycol modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETG) and poly(ethylene furanoate) (PEF), were investigated. The morphology of the blends shows a two phase structure in which the minor phase (amorphous polyester) is dispersed as domains in the major (EPDM) continuous matrix phase. Differential calorimetry studies confirmed that both systems were immiscible and exhibits two glass transitions. The melting peak area of EPDM in the blends decreased as the amount of the other component increased. The values of stress at strain of 100% were improved upon the increasing content of PETG in EPDM system, while only slight decrease of this value was observed. Moreover, the strong improvement of hardness and thermo-oxidative stability along with an increasing content of amorphous polyester phase was reported.

Open access
New bio-polyol based on white mustard seed oil for rigid PUR-PIR foams

Abstract

A new bio-polyol based on white mustard oil (Synapis alba) and 2,2′-mercaptodiethanol (2,2′-MDE) was obtained. The synthesis was carried out by two-step method. In the first stage, the double bond of the unsaturated fatty acid residues was oxidized, and in the second step the epoxy rings were opened with 2,2’-MDE. The properties of the obtained bio-polyol for application as raw material in polyurethane-polyisocyanurate foams (PUR-PIR) - hydroxyl number, acid number, density, viscosity, pH, water content, FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR were investigated. Based on the obtained results, foaming formulations containing 0 to 0.6 R of the new bio-polyol were prepared. Significant impact of bio-polyol on apparent density, compressive strength, brittleness, flammability, water absorption and thermal conductivity of polyurethane composites were noted. Modified foam had better functional properties than reference foam e.g. lower brittleness, better thermal insulation properties and better fire resistance.

Open access
A novel DOPO-g-KH550 modification wood fibers and its effects on the properties of composite phenolic foams

Abstract

A novel 9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) graft γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane (KH550) was synthesized and introduced on the surface of wood fiber. Finally DOPO-g-KH550 treated wood fiber (DKTWF) was used to prepare DKTWF composite phenolic foams (DKTWFCPF). The structures of DOPO-g- KH550 was acknowledged by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The structures of DKTWF were confirmed by FT-IR. Compared with wood fiber, the diffraction peaks’ position was basically unchanged, but the crystallinity was slightly increased and thermal stability were dramatically improved, T5% and Tmax increased by 21.9o and 36.1o respectively. But the char yield (800o) was slightly reduced. With the dosage of DKWF, there were different degrees of improvement including the mechanical properties, flame retardancy and microstructure of DKTWFCPF. Comprehensive analysis, the interfacial compatibility was significantly improved between DKTWF and phenolic resin, and the suitable content of DKTWF was 4%.

Open access