Summary Subject and purpose of work: The work presents the participation of religious ideas in shaping ethical attitudes in business. Its purpose is to indicate the need to consolidate ethical principles in economics with the use of various possibilities of social persuasion. Materials and methods: The research was based on literature studies, including religious, philosophical and historical literature. In particular, the method of induction was employed - from rules to conclusions. Attention was paid to the considerations of the method itself. Results: The development of research on the method required the recognition of the role of reason - autonomous with respect to faith. Findings of St. Thomas Aquinas (distinction between act and possibility, forms and matter, recognition of the causal linkage between events, negation of the dual truth about the same event) and W. Ockham (entities are not to be multiplied without necessity) are still valid today. Conclusions: Religious ideas support economic activity by propagating ethical norms of behaviour. This, in turn, evokes the view of J.M. Keynes about the important role of ideas as such. The significance of the Bible goes far beyond religious aspects.
The subject of the work is to discuss the regional aspects in the work of the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute in Puławy (henceforth referred to as ISSPC-SRI). All spheres of the Institute’s activity have been taken into account during the analysis. The basic sources of information were research plans, reports and publications whose authors were ISSPC-SRI employees. According to the analysis, regional aspects are reflected in ISSPC-SRI research conducted as part of statutory activities, long-term program and various types of projects. Regional aspects are conspicuous both in the diagnosis of the current condition and in forecasting changes in agriculture. They enrich, broaden and objectify assessments. They are also the premises for improving systems of agricultural advisory and strategic planning.
Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the work was to evaluate the quality of the websites of agritourism farms in the Visegrad Group countries. Materials and methods: Evaluation of website quality was based on selected “site authority” measures, from the so-called SEO metrics: Trust Rank, Moz Rank and Page Authority, as well as measurement of the selected performance parameters of websites. The research was conducted on a group of 400 websites of agritourism farms, whose addresses were obtained from selected web directories. Results: In the case of as many as 331 sites (approx. 83%) Trust Rank lower than 1 point was recorded. The majority of tested websites are characterised by an average value of the Moz Rank index and a low value of the Page Authority index. The average time taken to load the website in the browser window for the first time was about 2.7 seconds, with as many as 68 (17%) websites being loaded in over 5 seconds. Conclusions: The tested websites are characterised by low values of the authority index, which may indicate poor quality, poor visibility in search results and a lack of recommendations from other valuable sites. Low index values may also mean that, despite the global potential, the tested websites have a merely local impact. Their existence is known to a small number of people and their Internet visibility is negligible or nonexistent. Websites published in such a manner do not fulfil their function.
Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the article is an analysis of the state aid rules by state authorities in the context of calculating the amount of state aid. This problem was discussed on the basis of a relatively new form of assistance repayable instruments. The aim of this article is to identify the noncompliance of the rules generally applicable to the rules for repayable support. Materials and methods: In order to achieve the objectives set, the analysis of the identified problems was based on non-reactive research involving the assessment of available information. It included studies of normative acts, literature of the subject and reports and analyzes. Results: It has been identified that the current form of act on State aid cases does not take into account the specific nature of aid calculation under return instruments, which is that the final value of the state aid is known only after the repayment of the financial instrument. Conclusions: The legislator should adjust the law on proceedings in state aid cases, the more frequently used form of State intervention is repayable finance. The current practice differs from the literal wording of the provisions in question and should therefore be amended to adapt the provisions to this form of aid.
Agnieszka Kuś and Joanna Żurakowska-Sawa
Subject and purpose of work: The aim of this study is to analyse the profitability level of industrial companies in various phases of their lifecycle. Materials and methods: The article uses data from individual annual financial statements of industrial companies in accordance with the classification of the Warsaw Stock Exchange. In order to investigate whether there are essential differences in the level of profitability of companies in various phases of their lifecycle, due to significant deviations from normality, the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. To find out which lifecycle phases differ significantly in terms of the level of analysed profitability ratios, a test of multiple comparisons of medium ranks was used (Post-hoc Dunn’s test). Results: The obtained research results show that a given lifecycle phase significantly differentiates the level of the analysed profitability indices. Conclusions: Based on the conducted research, it was found that the company’s lifecycle phase statistically significantly differentiates the level of the analysed profitability indices. In the early phases of the lifecycle, the level of profitability in the surveyed companies increased gradually reaching maximum and stable values in the phase of maturity or shake-out, after which it decreased in the decline phase. This points to an evolutionary transition of individual companies to the next phase of the lifecycle.
Mirek Dymitrow and Rene Brauer
Reflective inquiries to better understand ‘the rural’ have tried to embed rural research within the notion of performativity. Performativity assumes that the capacity of language is not simply to communicate but also to consummate action, whereupon citational uses of concepts produce a series of material effects. Of late, this philosophical shift has also implicated geographers as active agents in producing, reproducing and performing rurality. This paper provides a critical evaluation of what this new insistence really means for the production of geographical knowledge. Using framework analysis as a method, the paper scrutinizes several reportedly influential papers on the topic of rural performativity. Our findings reveal that, while indeed reflexive on issues of academic integrity, methodology and ethics, performances of rurality are continuedly placed ‘out there’ amongst ‘rural people’, i.e. in a priori defined and often stereotypically understood contexts, either by way of ‘spatial delimitation’ or ‘activity delimitation’. Effectively, such testimonies provide a truncated state of fidelity, where performance- oriented reflexivity is seconded by contradictory empirics of uneven value and with few commonalities. We conclude that by turning towards performativity as an allegedly more helpful way of obtaining rural coherence, we at the same time overlook our own role in keeping ‘rural theory’ alive.
Stefania Środa-Murawska, Jadwiga Biegańska and Leszek Dąbrowski
It is widely accepted that the cultural sector and the creative sector have an impact on the socio-economic revival of cities. They create urban images, form a specific creative milieu, generate new jobs, and organize urban space. The above-mentioned observations have been mainly referred to the largest cities. So far, small cities have not been the subject of similar considerations. As many studies have shown in recent years, the potential of culture for socio-economic development in small cities has been noticed more and more often. It refers mainly to countries in Western Europe or in North America where generally, in the 1980s, the cultural sector was perceived as a remedy for the problems of post-industrial cities. This paper discusses the role of culture in the development of small cities in Poland, i.e. in a country in which only after 1989 is it possible to consider local development managed by local communities. The paper aims at showing how local governments of small cities in Poland perceive the role of culture in their development. The study is based on the analysis of strategic documents dedicated to the development of individual cities. When analysed, strategic documents clearly indicate that local authorities in every city use and are planning to further use different types of cultural activities for the enhancement or development of selected elements included in the broadly-understood socio-economic development; however, only few small cities notice the wide array of opportunities for making the cultural sector a base for socio-economic development.
Julia K. Giddy, Jennifer M. Fitchett and Gijsbert Hoogendoorn
Weather and climate are often important factors determining the success of a tourism destination and resultant satisfaction among tourists. This is particularly true for South Africa due the predominance of outdoor tourist attractions. Increasing numbers of international tourists have visited South Africa since the fall of apartheid, particularly those from the United States (U.S.), which is an important market for South African tourism. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine a sample of American tourists’ experience with day-to-day weather and climatic conditions in South Africa. The results show that although respondents did not feel that climatic conditions were an important factor in motivations to visit the country, the day-to-day weather did often impact the enjoyment of their visit. Most notably, weather controlled their ability to participate in outdoor activities. In correlating accounts of unpleasant weather conditions with the meteorological records, a close association emerged, particularly for excessively high temperatures. This indicates that the experiences of American tourists are an accurate indication of climatic unsuitability for tourism, which poses threats to the South African outdoor tourism sector.
Aliaksandr V. Charnavalau, Marek Kuźmicki and Adrian Grzegorzewski
Summary Subject and purpose of work: The article describes a new subject of research into the history of economic thought, the international Pribuzhie region. The article discusses the history of the rise and development of economic science in the Pribuzhie region from the 8th to the 21st century, which is the subject of research. The aim of the article is to present a new perspective on the subject of research as well as the characteristics of the process of economic science in the Pribuzhie region. Materials and methods: The article uses a conventional method, which is a collection of historical, philosophical and economic methods of cognition, on the basis of which, in the context of a scientific program, the past of economic thought and relevant doctrines are examined, and their content is described. Results: The various historical stages in the development of the economic thought of the Pribuzhie region are described, as well as new, unpublished facts relating to individual economic doctrines. Conclusions: Political activity and public administration activities should involve economic education, which defines the essence of economic policy, its objectives and ways of realization in the practical sphere.