M. Tenerowicz-Zaba, M. Kupkova, M. Kabatova, E. Dudrova, M. Dzupon and M. Sulowski
The aim of the study was to investigate Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of 1-3%Mn steels and compare the resultant microstructures, strengths and failure mechanisms with those of conventionally sintered materials. SPS was performed in a vacuum of 5 Pa at 1000°C for 15min under a uniaxial pressure of 20 MPa. The heating rate of 100°C/min was applied. For conventional processing, mixtures of powders were prepared in a Turbula mixer for 30 minutes. Samples were single pressed at 660 MPa, according to PN-EN ISO 2740 standard. Sintering of compacts was carried out in a laboratory tube furnace at 1120°C and 1250°C for 60 minutes in a mixture of 95%N2-5%H2. Heating and cooling rates were 75C°/min and 60°C/min, respectively. The density of SPS samples was higher (up to 7.37 g/cm3) than those after conventional sintering (up to 6.7 g/cm3). Yield strengths of SPS samples were in the range 920-1220 MPa, compared to the maximum of 602 MPa for conventionally sintered Fe-3%Mn-0.8%C. Transverse rupture strengths were the same for this alloy, 1234 MPa, but reached 1473 MPa for SPS 2Mn variant. Interfaces in SPS samples were significantly less contaminated with oxides, which is the result of a more favorable microclimate and pressure acting during SPS. These preliminary results indicate that further research on the SPS of Mn steels is warranted.
M. Vattur Sundaram, R. Shvab, S. Millot, E. Hryha and L. Nyborg
In order to be cost effective and to meet increasing performance demands, powder metallurgy steel components require continuous improvement in terms of materials and process development. This study demonstrates the feasibility of manufacturing structural components using two different alloys systems, i.e. lean Cr-prealloyed and diffusion bonded water atomised powders with different processing conditions. The components were sintered at two different temperatures, i.e. 1120 and 1250 °C for 30 minutes in three different atmospheres: vacuum, N2- 10%H2 atmosphere as well as lean N2-5%H2-0.5%CO-(0.1-0.4)%CH4 sintering atmosphere. Components after sintering were further processed by either low pressure carburizing, sinterhardening or case hardening. All trials were performed in the industrial furnaces to simulate the actual production of the components. Microstructure, fractography, apparent and micro hardness analyses were performed close to the surface and in the middle of the sample to characterize the degree of sintering (temperature and atmosphere) and the effect of heat treatment. In all cases, components possess mostly martensitic microstructure with a few bainitic regions. The fracture surface shows well developed sinter necks. Inter- and trans-granular ductile and cleavage fracture modes are dominant and their fraction is determined by the alloy and processing route.
The effect of ball milling powder mixtures of Höganäs pre-alloyed iron Astaloy CrM, low-carbon ferromanganese Elkem, elemental electrolytic Cu and C-UF graphite on the sintered structure and mechanical properties was evaluated. The mixing was conducted using Turbula mixer for 30 minutes and CDI-EM60 frequency inverter for 1 and 2 hours. Milling was performed on 150 g mixtures with (in weight %) CrM + 1% Mn, CrM + 2% Mn, CrM + 1% Mn + 1% Cu and CrM + 2% Mn + 1% Cu, all with 0.6%C. The green compacts were single pressed at 660 MPa according to PN-EN ISO 2740. Sintering was carried out in a laboratory horizontal furnace Carbolite STF 15/450 at 1250°C for 60 minutes in 5%H2 – 95%N2 atmosphere with a heating rate of 75°C/min, followed by sintering hardening at 60°C/min cooling rate. All the steels were characterized by martensitic structures. Mechanical testing revealed that steels based on milled powders have slightly higher mechanical properties compared to those only mixed and sintered. The best combination of mechanical properties, for ball milled CrM + 1% Mn + 1% Cu was UTS 1046 MPa, TRS 1336 MPa and A 1.94%.
The effect of heat treatment on density, hardness, microstructure and tensile properties of Fe-0.85Mo-1.3Mn-0.6C sintered steel were investigated. Pre-alloyed Astaloy 85Mo, ferromanganese and UF4 graphite powders were mixed for 60 minutes in a Turbula mixer and then pressed in single-action die at 660MPa to produce green compacts (according to PN EN ISO 2740).The compacts were sintered in a specially designed semi-closed container at 1120 or 1250°C for 60 minutes in N2. The chemical composition of the sintering atmosphere was modified by adding getter and/or activator into the container. Two different types of heat treatment in nitrogen were carried out: sinteraustempering at 525°C for 60 minutes; and sinterhardening with additional tempering at 200°C for 60 minutes. The slightly better combination of strength and plasticity of steel for both sintering temperatures were achieved after sinterhardening+tempering variant. Average values of 0.2% offset yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and elongation after sintering in 1250°C, were 415MPa, 700MPa, and 2.0%, respectively.
Herbert Danninger, Vassilka Vassileva and Christian Gierl-Mayer
In ferrous powder metallurgy, both boron and phosphorus have been known to be sintering activators for a long time. However, the use has been widely different: while P is a standard additive to sintered iron and steels, boron has been frequently studied, but its use in practice is very limited. Both additives are also known to be potentially embrittling, though in a different way. In the present study the differences between the effects of both elements are shown: while P activates sintering up to a certain threshold, in part by stabilizing ferrite, in part by forming a transient liquid phase, boron is the classical additive enhancing persistent liquid phase, being virtually insoluble in the iron matrix. The consequence is that sintered steels can tolerate quite a proportion of phosphorus, depending on composition and sintering process; boron however is strongly embrittling in particular in combination with carbon, which requires establishing a precisely defined content that enhances sintering but is not yet embrittling. The fracture mode of embrittled materials is also different: while with Fe-P the classical intergranular fracture is observed, with boron a much more rugged fracture surface appears, indicating some failure through the eutectic interparticle network but mostly transgranular cleavage. If carbon is added, in both cases transgranular cleavage dominates even in the severely embrittled specimens, indicating that no more the grain boundaries and sintering necks are the weakest links in the systems.
Sigurdur Hrafn Gislason, Ruta Bogdane and Inese Vasiļevska-Nesbita
A Fatigue Monitoring Tool (FMT) model was constructed for an operational airline in order to manage the fatigue levels of their crews in accordance with Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) practices. This article describes the implementation of the Fatigue Monitoring Tool model and the airline’s aims to put the recent scientific findings on aviation fatigue into practical use. The model consists of proxy points allotted to various duties and rest periods.
Vasyl Kondratiuk, Eduard Kovalevskiy and Svitlana Ilnytska
Global satellite navigation system (GNSS) is by far the most cost-effective outdoor positioning technology currently available and used for many types of applications. In some cases a user may face difficult conditions, like restricted access to the navigation satellites due to natural or man-made phenomena. This paper presents an idea of an integrated positioning system capable of functioning under limited visibility conditions of navigation satellites. The system includes a digital antenna array, channels for converting radio navigation signals, a phase difference meter, a gyro platform with 3 gyros, an altimeter and a special calculator. With the help of mathematical modeling, the accuracy characteristics of the system are investigated by determining the coordinates of the carrier under conditions of a small number of available satellite signals.
Aleksandrs Urbahs, Sudip Das, Shravan Koundinya Vutukuru and Kristīne Carjova
Experiments and computational studies were carried out to get an understanding of the flow field around a rectangular supersonic intake with pointed cowl shape. Experiments include quantitative pressure measurements and flow visualization studies by using schlieren techniques. The effects of the presence of various cowl shapes on ramp surface have been obtained computationally at Mach 2.0. The experiments were carried out only for the pointed cowl. Schlieren Photographs were taken. Three-Dimensional simulations were made by using FLUENT at supersonic speed. The details of the experiments and computations are discussed.
K. Sülleiová, B. Ballóková, M. Besterci and T. Kvačkaj
The development of the nanostructure in commercial pure copper and the strength and ductility after severe plastic deformation (SPD) with the technology of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) are analysed. Experimental results and analyses showed that both strength and ductility can be increased simultaneously by SPD. The final grain size decreased from the initial 50μm by SPD to 100-300 nm after 10 passes. An increase of the ductility together with an increase of strength caused by SPD are explained by a strong grain refinement and by a dynamic equilibrium of weakening and strengthening, and it is visible on the final static tensile test stress-strain charts.
Andrzej Ambrozik, Dariusz Kurczyński and Piotr Łagowski
Modern means of transport are basically powered by piston internal combustion engines. Increasingly rigorous demands are placed on IC engines in order to minimise the detrimental impact they have on the natural environment. That stimulates the development of research on piston internal combustion engines. The research involves experimental and theoretical investigations carried out using computer technologies. While being filled, the cylinder is considered to be an open thermodynamic system, in which non-stationary processes occur. To make calculations of thermodynamic parameters of the engine operating cycle, based on the comparison of cycles, it is necessary to know the mean constant value of cylinder pressure throughout this process. Because of the character of in-cylinder pressure pattern and difficulties in pressure experimental determination, in the present paper, a novel method for the determination of this quantity was presented. In the new approach, the iteration method was used. In the method developed for determining the volumetric efficiency, the following equations were employed: the law of conservation of the amount of substance, the first law of thermodynamics for open system, dependences for changes in the cylinder volume vs. the crankshaft rotation angle, and the state equation. The results of calculations performed with this method were validated by means of experimental investigations carried out for a selected engine at the engine test bench. A satisfactory congruence of computational and experimental results as regards determining the volumetric efficiency was obtained. The method for determining the volumetric efficiency presented in the paper can be used to investigate the processes taking place in the cylinder of an IC engine.