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Julius Paulikas

Abstract

Innovation is a complex process which causes various changes in organizations. Since the success of innovation is mostly influenced by the staff, the research aims at theoretical and empirical identification of the factors which determine employees’ positive attitude to innovations implemented in Klaipėda public transport companies. The research findings revealed that the main factor which fosters employees’ positive attitude to innovations is a material incentive, and the least significant factor is an opportunity to participate and be involved in the process of innovation creation and implementation. The dominant factors are the ones that are most related to personal benefits for the employees themselves rather than to the benefits for the organization.

Open access

Marzena Feldy

Abstract

The quality of research is the most important feature in the world of science. A researcher who achieves an excellence in science has a chance to win recognition and gain authority in her scientific field. In order to succeed in science, a researcher ought to undertake effective personal marketing efforts. The aim of personal marketing is to create and maintain a desirable attitude and/or behavior of others towards a scientist and build a positive scientific image of herself. A scientist who engages in self-promotion may, however, take on herself the odium of the academic community. Hence, the researcher's perception of the importance of personal marketing engagement for success in science determines her activity in this domain. The approach to the issue may vary depending on the system of values and norms recognized as valid in science. The purpose of the study is to examine the differences in perceptions of the importance of personal marketing engagement between researchers who identify themselves with different scientific ethoses. In order to achieve the objective of the study, I created two research scales and classified surveyed scientists into four groups. Three of these groups professed the ethos of academic, industrial and post-academic science respectively, and the fourth group did not identify with any of the value systems above. Then, I examined how the members of distinguished groups perceive the importance of three potential success factors in science, i.e.: popularization of research results, recognition in the scientific community and recognition outside the scientific community. The analyses were performed on data obtained from 800 scientists who participated in a nationwide CAPI study conducted by National Information Processing Institute at the turn of 2015 and 2016. According to the surveyed scientists, the most attention should be paid to the popularization of research results, and the least attention should be given to the activities that ensure recognition outside the scientific community. Researchers who identify themselves with the ethos of post-academic science, that is based on values of both academic and industrial sciences, rate the importance of all three aspects of self-promotion relatively high. Scientists who acknowledge the Merton's ethos of academic science are at the opposite extreme. They rate extremely low the importance of striving for recognition in the non-scientific community.

In accordance with intuition, researchers who incorporate the values of Ziman's industrial science

appreciate recognition in the scientific community less than other respondents. It is safe to say that the greatest marketing awareness is characteristic for scientists who accept the ethos of post academic science, and the poorest - for those who identify themselves with the ethos of academic science.

Open access

Edmore Mahembe and Nicholas M. Odhiambo

Abstract

This paper aims to analyses the trends and dynamics of extreme poverty in developing countries. The study attempts to answer one critical question: has the world achieved its number one Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of reducing extreme poverty by half by 2015? The methodology used in this study mainly involves a descriptive data analysis during the period 1981-2015. The study used the World Bank’s US$1.90 a day line (popularly known as $1 a day line) in 2011 prices to measure the level of absolute poverty. In order to analyze the dynamics of poverty across different regions, the study grouped countries into five regions: i) sub-Saharan Africa; ii) East Asia and the Pacific; iii) South Asia; iv) Europe and Central Asia; and v) Latin America and the Caribbean. The study found that in 1990, there were around 1.9 billion people living below US$1.90 a day (constituting 36.9 percent of the world population) and this number is estimated to have reduced to around 700 million people in 2015, with an estimated global poverty rate of 9.6 percent. The world met the MDG target in 2010, which is five years ahead of schedule. However, extreme poverty is becoming increasingly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA), where its depth and breadth remain a challenge. SSA remains the poorest region, with more than 35 percent of its citizens living on less than US$1.90 a day. Half of the world’s extremely poor people now live in SSA, and it is the only region which has not met its MDG target.

Open access

Zuzana Lušňáková, Mária Šajbidorová and Zuzana Juríčková

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to determine the development trends in motivation factors. In the first part, the authors analyse apparent differences in the use of motivation factors by business managers. Then, the authors try to determine the role and influence of independent variables, namely leadership style, corporate culture and corporate communication on employee motivation.

Open access

Octavian-Dragomir Jora, Matei-Alexandru Apăvăloaei and Mihaela Iacob

Abstract

The concept of cultural heritage covers the tangible and intangible things bequeathed from the past generations along with a spiritual signification, beyond any other serviceableness. Anthropologists, sociologists, philosophers and aesthetes are the critical reviewers of the field, while legalists and economists contribute with their own concerns: regulation and evaluation. Be it of tangible nature – i.e., buildings, sites, paintings, sculptures or various other artefacts – or of an intangible one – i.e., traditions, practices, beliefs, literary or musical compositions –, the cultural heritage has challenged the economists urging them to offer sophisticated tools to assess its value, to make cost-benefit analyses with respect to its preservation, restoration or reuse. The supporters of regulation in the cultural goods market justify it through the fact that the market cannot provide in an efficient manner this type of goods, the solution being national government intervention – i.e., for the regulation and finance of cultural/heritage goods – or even international government regulation, in cases when national states’ failure is encountered. A widespread opinion is that heritage is communal, par excellence, this view implicitly adjusting the acceptation that private property has in the cultural realm. The present paper addresses the reality and the necessity of ownership and movement of heritage goods especially in the international markets, considered as a dangerous vacuum for national cultural treasuries.

Open access

Jesús Eduardo Oliva Abarca

Abstract

Cultural entrepreneurship is proposed as a working alternative for the graduates and the professionals who are involved in the cultural production, either as artists or writers, or as cultural promoters, managers, or cultural merchandisers. Although cultural entrepreneurship is a frequent practice in developed economies, in developing countries, such as México, it is an emerging process. Therefore, an inquiry about cultural entrepreneurs was necessary in order to comprehend their organizational and working ways. This study was limited to a local analysis of cultural entrepreneurs in visual arts, audiovisual production, and graphic design in the Mexican state of Nuevo León. The study was structured on the basis of the following research question: how is an entrepreneurial initiative in visual arts, audiovisual production and graphic design established, organized, and operated in the Mexican state of Nuevo León? The research results were categorized into three main topics: the first one is the constitution of the cultural initiatives, a theme which comprises the motives, the expectations and the starting resources of the cultural entrepreneurs interviewed. The second topic refers to the organization of their projects, which consists of the structure of the initiatives of the cultural entrepreneurs. The third topic refers to their operational modes, which includes the main activities of the cultural entrepreneurs and their promotional practices.

Open access

Aušra Pažėraitė and Rūta Repovienė

Abstract

The paper focuses on the assumption that new marketing and communication concepts, including content marketing, provide new opportunities for internal communication. The problem solved in this paper argues how content marketing decisions can contribute to effective internal communication. Based on scientific literature analysis, a theoretical-hypothetical model of the content marketing decisions’ contribution to the effective internal communication is presented.

Open access

Martin Horák and Jana Matošková

Abstract

The role of cluster manager and his/her development is an essential element in order to gain a competitive advantage and to ensure sustainability of cluster organisation. Nevertheless, research on cluster management has hardly studied the scope of offered trainings with areas of developed skills for this position. Hence, the main objective of the paper is to analyze and evaluate content of current training programmes for cluster managers in Europe with respect to their focus on the development of hard and soft skills. Analyzed training programmes were chosen based on the consultations with members from National Cluster Association operating in the Czech Republic. Regarding the defined criterion, hard skills included terms related to specific cluster knowledge (tools/methods for cluster setting/development; cluster policy), knowledge in management area. Meanwhile, we understood soft skills as terms related to intrapersonal skills (one’s ability to manage oneself) and interpersonal skills (how one handles one’s interactions with others). The article was processed via desktop research involving collection of relevant information from secondary sources. The paper explores ten international programmes done across Europe. Based on the gathered data, we claim that analyzed programmes are overwhelmingly focused on developing hard skills (mainly specific knowledge and abilities required for success in the cluster manager position - such as knowledge about identifying cluster, tools and methods for development of clusters). However, based on the literature, it is clear that soft skills (intrapersonal and interpersonal skills) are crucial for sustainable development of organisation. Considering implications for the practice, our findings provide valuable point for organisations/initiatives offering training programmes for cluster managers.

Open access

Corina Pelau and Alexandra-Catalina Chinie

Abstract

In the past decades the preoccupation of decision-makers towards innovation and sustainable development has gained a major importance in the policy of most countries in Europe. On one hand, efficient innovation can differentiate a country or a region from another and make a difference in the intense increasing economic, technological and social competition. On the other hand, the orientation towards sustainable development assures a clean and unpolluted, social oriented and healthy environment as a framework for the growth of a country or a region. In many cases, innovation and sustainable development go hand in hand, as innovations contribute to the development of clean technologies, while sustainable societies assure the proper environment and background for stimulating the innovation research. The objective of this research is to determine the cluster of countries in Europe which are rather oriented to innovation or to sustainable development or both and to forecast their future developments and tendencies. In order to achieve this objective, the multivariate cluster analysis was applied with the help of the SPSS program, for data provided by the Eurostat for several innovation, sustainable development and contextual indicators. In a first step, for each of the analyzed countries, the values of the indicators have been collected for the same period and the correlations among them have been determined. In the second phase the number of clusters and the cluster membership of each country was determined, by running the Ward cluster analysis. Based on the results, the characteristics of each cluster of countries was defined.

Open access

Agnieszka Izabela Baruk and Anna Goliszek

Abstract

The article has the theoretical-empirical character. The problems related to the meaning of connotations with an university as an employer among potential employees were presented. In the theoretical part the method of the cognitive-critical analysis of the world literature on image management, marketing and human resources management was applied. On the base of the results of this analysis the key role of the potential employees' connotations with the employer in the process of image creation was underlined. There are not considerations in this scope connected with an university as an employer in the literature. So, one can state that two gaps (cognitive and research) exist. That's why in the article the following aims were to be gained: identifying young potential employees' connotations with an university as an employer, defining the changes of these connotations, grouping identified connotations etc. To prepare the empirical part the method of questionnaire research (to gather primary data) and the methods of quantitative analysis (including average rating analysis and comparative analysis) were applied. The results showed that respondents' connotations with an university as an employer were worst in 2018 in the comparison to 2016 year. It's reflected in the growth of values of five average ratings in the case of negative connotations as well as in the decrease of values of some average ratings in the case of positive ones.