The authors’ main goal is to highlight the additional research potential of the method of analysing changes in the routes and names of streets introduced by Paweł E. Weszpiński in 2012. The proposed method was based on the old city maps of Warsaw and, according to Weszpiński, described “wandering streets and their names”. Taking the changing routes and names of streets on Lublin city maps from the last century as the research subject, the authors demonstrate that the method can be used to analyse how urban spaces are perceived and how they function in the minds of local residents. The authors propose to modify the method by adding one more important factor – the function of the place or street affected by the “wandering”. They claim that the study of changes in streets’ topography, territorial scope and names should be supplemented each time with an analysis of the administrative, economic or social significance of the place.
The flow of immigrants into Europe is a phenomenon commonly known since the end of the Second World War. To a large extent it was the result of a colonial and then post-colonial relationship between metropolises and their overseas territories. Migration movements in Europe intensified after 1989 along with systemic changes in the eastern part of the continent.
The phenomenon of increased migration to Europe observed since March 2015 combines both processes: economic migration, which undoubtedly dominates in terms of number, and exiles, of a much smaller scale, but given as the cause of migration by almost all migrants. A new phenomenon is the fact that a large part of migrants constitutes uncontrolled migration, which in previous years was marginal. In 2015, asylum applications were submitted in EU countries by as many as 1.25 million people. The influx of refugees to Europe has become not only a demographic phenomenon, but also a political one, evoking strong political emotions. Mass migrations also seem to be an instrument of international policy implementation by key world powers.
The main purpose of the article was to present the background of the mass migration to Europe that took place in 2015. The main reasons for the decision to emigrate by the citizens of origin countries were shown, as well as the routes by which refugees flow into Europe.
Autonomous underwater gliders are buoyancy propelled vehicles. Their way of propulsion relies upon changing their buoyancy with internal pumping systems enabling them up and down motions, and their forward gliding motions are generated by hydrodynamic lift forces exerted on a pair of wings attached to a glider hull. In this study lift and drag characteristics of a glider were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach and results were compared with the literature. Flow behavior, lift and drag forces distribution at different angles of attack were studied for Reynolds numbers varying around 105 for NACA0012 wing configurations. The variable of the glider was the angle of attack, the velocity was constant. Flow velocity was 0.5 m/s and angle of the body varying from −8° to 8° in steps of 2°. Results from the CFD constituted the basis for the calculation the equations of motions of glider in the vertical plane. Therefore, vehicle motion simulation was achieved through numeric integration of the equations of motion. The equations of motions will be solved in the MatLab software. This work will contribute to dynamic modelling and three-dimensional motion simulation of a torpedo shaped underwater glider.
This study presents changes in religious tourism in Poland at the beginning of the 21st century. These include the development of a network of pilgrimage centers, the renaissance of medieval pilgrim routes, the unflagging popularity of pilgrimages on foot as well as new forms using bicycles, canoes, skis, scooters, rollerblades and trailskates; along with riding, Nordic walking, running and so on. Related to pilgrimages, there is a growing interest in so-called ‘holidays’ in monasteries, hermitages and retreat homes, as well as a steady increase in weekend religious tourism. Religious tourists and pilgrims are attracted to shrines by mysteries, church fairs and religious festivals, in addition to regular religious services and ceremonies.
Snowbed vegetation is one of the most sensitive alpine vegetation type to the climate change, because shortened period of snow cover has essential impact on the snowbed environment. We focus on its changes in the Western Tatras, which is a part of the Western Carpathians (Slovakia). The assessment of changes in snowbed vegetation is based on the method of pair comparison. In 2016–2018, we resampled 21 historical phytocoenological relevés of Festucion picturatae and Salicion herbaceae alliances from 1974 and 1976. Historical data include 45 species, while recent data include 50 species. We observed a decrease in the frequency of species characteristic for snowbeds and, on the other hand, an increase in that for strong competitors, especially grasses and small shrubs from adjacent habitats. According to Ellenberg’s ecological indices, there is some increase in temperature and decrease in light ecological factors in snowbed habitats. In S. herbaceae data, a statistically significant increase in the average species number was observed with new species that penetrated from the adjacent habitats. Changes in species composition between historical and recent data are confirmed by Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordination diagram. Linear mixed-effect models showed big variability in factors that have impact on phytodiversity; nevertheless, temperature is the most significant factor.
The purpose of the paper is to identify changes in the structure of the tourism function in Kujawy spas which have led to their transformation into tourism and health resorts. The study was based on tourist traffic statistics referring to the period 2000-2017 and included defining the relationship between curative and other forms of tourist traffic. The author has used a wide range of statistical data, as well as information provided by surveys to determine and analyze the statistical indicators of tourist traffic pace, intensity and structure. The analysis reveals a significant transformation of the spas in Kujawy. This is confirmed by the indicators of curative and non-curative tourist traffic and by the reasons for visiting health resorts. The pace of changes in the tourism function in individual spas is varied. It is fastest in Ciechocinek, accelerating in Wieniec-Zdrój and slowest in Inowrocław. The changes occurring in the spas are causing their gradual transformation into tourism and health resorts.
The available aerial gamma-ray spectrometric data of Ar-Rassafeh Badyieh area (Area-2) are used herein for geological interpretations and mapping purposes. Those data are interpreted by the concentration-number (C-N) fractal modelling technique, with the use of log-log graphs. According to C-N model, different radioactive ranges of TC, eU, eTh, and K have been isolated. Those ranges are thereafter used to characterize the lithological outcrops in the study area. The radioactive signatures of all the outcrops in Area-2 have been discussed and documented through establishing the C-N maps of TC, eU, eTh, and K, and benefiting of the available geological map. The C-N fractal modelling technique proves its efficacy, where radioactive and lithological boundaries of outcrops are in concordance. The case study presented in this paper shows the importance and the role of airborne gamma-ray spectrometric and fractal modelling techniques to support the geological mapping and the interpretations in geological context, particularly when the study region is rugged and difficult to be accessed.
Lina Bendjema, Kamila Baba-Hamed and Abderrazak Bouanani
Drought is one of the important phenomena resulting from variability and climate change. It has negative effects on all economic, agricultural and social sectors. The objective of this study is to rapidly detect climate dryness situations on an annual scale at the Mellah catchment (Northeast Algeria) for periods ranging from 31 years through the calculation of: the standardized precipitation index (SPI), the standardized Streamflow index (SSFI), the standardized temperature index (STI). Calculations made it possible to locate periods of drought more precisely by their intensity, duration and frequency, and detect years of breaks using the tests of Pettitt, rang, Lee and Heghinian, Hubert and Buishand. The use of the statistical tests for the rainfall series analyzed show all breaks, the majority of which are in 1996/1997 and 2001/2002. For the temperatures the breaks are situated in 1980/1981.
The earthen dam of Salhab is located in the southern margins of Al-Ghab plain at 3–4km of Salhab town northern-west of Syria. The dam consists of two separated embankments: the main one extends east-west along a distance of 895 m with 14.5 m height, while the second embankment towards northwest-southeast over a distance of 510 m and 11 m of height. The dam crest has a constant topographic elevation of 220 m above sea level (a.s.l). Electrical Resistivity Tomography surveys (ERT) combined with a Self-Potential measurements (SP), were implemented at the upstream and at the top of the main and the secondary embankments of the dam in order to identify the possible leakage zones under the dam’s body. The interpretation of the ERT sections and the SP measurements, carried out at the upstream side, revealed a distinct zone of leakage extending along the beginning and the end parts under the main embankment. Moreover, many punctual anomalous spots of low resistivity values were recognized within the dam’s clay core. One of those spots was confirmed by the implementation of a detailed ERT profile and by a piezometric borehole drilled at the top of the dam. Whereas, the clay core of the secondary embankment seems relatively coherent and homogeneous as well as a trace of a tectonic fault was identified under the end part of the embankment body but no manifestations of leakage were observed under and behind the secondary dam body.
Hanane Achoub, Lahcene Zaiter, Fadila Benayache, Samir Benayache, Jean Claude Chalchat, Pierre Chalard, Gilles Figueredo and Salah Akkal
The essential oil of the aerial parts of Thymus ciliatus (Desf.) belonging to the Lamiaceae family, was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. 75 components were identified corresponding to 95.57% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were: elemol (6.80%), carvacrol (5.86%), γ-muurolene (5.18%), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.09%), bicyclogermacrene (5.04%), β-pinene (4.49%) and curcumene (4.20%), together with other compounds at relatively low levels: 1,8-cineol (3.66%), β-eudesmol (2.92%), β-bisabolene (2.81%), β-silinene (2.75%), camphor (2.64%), germacrone (2.34%), α-zingiberene (2.12%), δ-cadinene (2.08%), caryophyllene oxide (1.90%), spathulenol (1.88%), □-caryophyllene (1.88%), ar-turmerone (1.79%), α-pinene (1.52%), limonene (1.52%), selina-4,11-diene (1.46%), curzerenone (1.41%), germacrone B (1.37%), bornyl acetate (1.31%), β-farnesene (1.28%), borneol (1.23%), myrtenal (1.16%), zingiberenol (1.15%) and sabinene (1.13%). These results differ from those of previous studies reported on this species collected from other regions of Algeria and Morocco.