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Juraj Ružbarský and Witold Biały

Abstract

The article deals with the formation and spread of cracks from thermal fatigue in metallic forms. For a detailed examination of the problem, it is necessary to describe the thermal side of the process and the mechanism of mechanical stressing of the material. For the heating of the material is valid where the thermal diffusivity of the material is exercised by the decision method. The stress of the material by heating from the die casting metal depends mainly on the physical properties of the material when the calculated stress does not exceed the yield point. Also, with the help of dislocations write the life to the origin of the cracks in the cycles eventually the share of this lifetime on the total lifetime in dependence on the mechanical and physical properties of the material. During operation tests the occurrence of the cracks on the mold surface was initiated by the inclusion or concentration of stress in the knurling effect of fine grooves after grinding. Other cracks occurred in the undersurface layer and their direction was statistically accidental.

Open access

Jindra Peterková and Jiří Franek

Abstract

The majority of Czech managers are aware that the long-term competitiveness of the company depends primarily on the use of innovative technical solutions and investments in new technologies. Despite awareness of the importance of innovation, many companies do not know how to manage, implement, and evaluate them. Empirical research showed that most innovation firms implement, but do not systematically manage the implementation of innovative projects and the allocation of funds. There is a contradiction between companies’ ability to orientate themselves in the approaches available in the area of innovation management and the existence of a large number of approaches that can be used to address a particular type of innovation problem. A set of innovation concepts has been created to solve those challenges. Practical steps of the decision-making mechanism for selecting innovation concepts have been proposed. The decision-making mechanism is based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and serves primarily for managers of medium and large enterprises.

Open access

René Matlovič, Radoslav Klamár, Ján Kozoň, Monika Ivanová and Miloslav Michalko

Abstract

The paper focuses on the evaluation of some aspects of the spatial organization of economic development of regions in the V4 countries after their accession to the EU. It focuses on the confirmation or confutation of the application of two principles of spatial organization based on the context of polarization theories, namely the polarity between western and eastern regions (i.e. the West–East gradient) and the polarity between the capital and other regions of the country (i.e. the national metropolitan gradient) at national and supranational levels. In the evaluation of the spatial polarity, the remoteness of various regions of the V4 countries from the economic core area (the Blue Banana, respectively the capital of the country) acts as the independent variable, whereby two economic indicators, i.e. the average monthly wage and the unemployment rate were chosen as the dependent variables. The analysis showed that on the supranational scale of the research in the monitored period, the increase of spatial polarisation was recorded. The increasing role of the West–East gradient and declining role of the national metropolitan gradient in the dynamics of spatial polarity has also been confirmed. The analysis has not confirmed the scale shift of polarity according to the West–East gradient to the national level, but at the same time it has pointed out the significant influence of the national metropolitan gradient in Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary at this assessment level.

Open access

Wieslaw Urban and Elzbieta Krawczyk-Dembicka

Abstract

The development of enterprises in the globalised world depends on their development potential and ability to compete with other entities. Of key importance in the field of competitiveness is access to innovative technologies providing a competitive advantage and the ability to cooperate in their acquisition with other entities, e.g. in clusters. The authors attempted to identify the sources of technology and financing options used by companies in the metal processing industry. The studied entities are part of a cluster of national importance, and the adopted research method is based on an interview questionnaire. Studies have shown that most companies buy ready-made solutions and to a lesser extent cooperate in acquiring technology. Noticeable is also a relatively large share of financing investments in new technologies from public funds.

Open access

Jolanta Bijańska, Aleksandra Kuzior and Krzysztof Wodarski

Abstract

This article presents a pilot study on the local community’s social perception regarding coal mines in Upper Silesia. The research was performed in connection with the smog, which was persistent and harmful to residents during the winter months of 2016. The researchers put forward to the local community the following two survey questions: 1. Is the image of coal mines in the eyes of the local community positive or negative? 2. Are coal mines socially responsible and is coal a good energy source? The aim of this article is to indicate the relationship of the local community to the presence of hard coal mines in the neighbourhood and their social role. Also, this work looks to identify the nuisances perceived by the inhabitants of the examined region about mining enterprises and whether these burdens should result in abandonment of hard coal mining. Pilot studies were conducted with the use of a diagnostic survey. The study was carried out in January 2017 on a sample of 267 people, comprising Silesian University of Technology students residing in Upper Silesia. An environmental survey technique was used. The researchers hypothesise that the image of mining and coal as a fuel for the local community is negative and the mines are not socially responsible enterprises. This research shows that the operation of mines is essential for society and its stability as it affects economic, social and energy safety. A large proportion of the respondents defined the image of mining as positive (108 people), but 76 people indicated that the image was rather negative. Most respondents pointed to the benefits of the mine’s operation. Opinions on social responsibility were divided, and most respondents failed to provide concrete examples of social engagement, so the first hypothesis was partly confirmed. Although the respondents pointed to various nuisances resulting from the mining companies operating in their environment, they also recognised significant social aspects related to employability and access to relatively cheap fuel. However, they do not realise the social involvement of mines, which is one of the conditions of sustainable development. Pilot studies allowed for the initial identification of problems and verification of the research tool utilised in this study.

Open access

Patryk Zwierzyński and Hesham Ahmad

Abstract

The article presents the concept of seru production and a simple simulation experiment to check the application effectiveness of the seru production concept in the assembly line of finished products. The article presents the concept of seru production created by Japanese electronics manufacturing companies in the 90s. The simulation experiment showed, better results using the seru production concept compared to a traditional assembly line. Three types of production cells were used and each option turned out to be better than a traditional assembly line.

Open access

Marzena Ogórek and Dominika Strycharska

Abstract

This paper presents the results of research, conducted using a questionnaire form, in dynamically developing industrial enterprises located in the economic zones of southern Poland. The results of these studies were referred to research carried out in public utility entities located in the same geographical area. These studies concerned, among others, the development of human and intellectual capital, which is why analysis was carried out on the following issues: the level of cooperation between colleagues, the level of exchange of information and experience among colleagues, the manager understands and facilitates the flow of information among colleagues, the degree of computerization in the workplace and the implementation of solutions in the company aimed at preserving the acquired knowledge and experience.

Open access

Tadeusz Krupa and Teresa Ostrowska

Abstract

The article is devoted to the modeling of object structures in sequences of event processes characteristic of critical infrastructure (CI) objects arising in emergency situations. The identification of risky sequences of events is a key issue carried out in topological, functional and semiotic terms. The topological approach includes flat, hierarchical and hypergraph - it is possible by means of transformations of equivalent models of the event network through its simplification to the form of a hypothesis or towards the desired functionality. The functionality approach covers theorizing and plural problems in the processes of the creation of a priori and aposteriorical errors of multiplication and synthesis on the basis of also incorrect graphical models of functioning. The semiotic approach captures combinatorically related functional and structural errors, which are impossible to identify and remove by means of arithmetic-logical tests. Currently, this is possible only on the basis of the paradigm of the characterization theory, which guarantees a semantic relationship between the correctness of the functioning and the structure of the analyzed versus the synthesized object of research.

Open access

Olumide Jaiyeoba, Chux Gervase Iwu and Edward Marandu

Abstract

The quest for the diversification of Botswana’s mineral-led economy necessitates an examination of other performing ones such as the Tourism-Transport and Finance-Consulting small service sectors which have been identified as also contributing immensely to its economy. So, this paper investigates variations in market orientation and performance among small service firms in Botswana. In more specific terms, it involves analysis of variations with regard to tourism-transport and finance-consulting firms. Set in Botswana, data were obtained, using a respondent-completed questionnaire from 54 managers in the tourism-transport sector and 121 managers in the finance-consulting sector. Despite the focus of the study on sectoral variations among service firms in Botswana, the study makes major contributions to our understanding of market orientation-performance link. First, the overall level of market orientation varied significantly between the two sectors. Secondly, two of the three components of market orientation, namely intelligence generation and intelligence responsiveness also displayed statistically significant differences between each component and the two sectors. Thirdly, organizational commitment, team spirit and customer satisfaction were significantly different between the two sectors. These findings suggest the need for a sustained and systematic study aimed at finding out the relative importance of market orientation in different sectors. Such a study may be helpful in suggesting differentiated marketing orientation emphases that may help firms optimize their marketing budget. Notwithstanding the several scholarly works on market orientation and firm performance, the value of market orientation in sub-Saharan Africa has only begun to receive attention in Africa. Research evidence is scanty in the case of Botswana.

Open access

Aurelia Rybak and Anna Manowska

Abstract

Polish energy security is based mainly on a coal. Such dependency will be still maintained for several years. It is therefore necessary to improve the economic situation of polish mining companies. The mining companies in Poland are operating under tremendous uncertainty of turbulent environment. The article presents used by the authors methods to facilitate the creation and selection of optimal production strategy. These are scenario planning, forecasting and linear programming, which allow the simulation of company operations in the future. The authors suggest the most successful and optimal forecasting models for the Polish mining industry, as well as factors affecting the demand for hard coal in Poland. The manuscript presents also possible to apply coal production strategies and the method of evaluation and selection of optimal strategy in the difficult conditions of Polish mining companies environment. This makes it possible to take a decision burdened with minor errors and less risk.