Research in 60s and 70s started to deal with the shape of the chip characterization. It was possible then to do a limited study by means of measuring tool park. During such a study, different models for chip formation became familiar, such as the Time or Merchant model. The aim of article is to gain insight into some accompanying phenomena, occurring while cutting of different materials and with various tools. During an experimental design, the possible effects of different variables on each other and individually were considered. Two work-pieces (C45, POM) with two inserts (with two different edge design) were tested while changing of cutting speed and feed. During measurements cutting forces at 5000 Hz signal reception were tested or the evolution of cutting temperature at different experimental settings was evaluated. The chip characteristics are measured by a high speed camera. The camera is connected with PC for recording and controlling the experimental procedure in real-time. The frequency of High Speed Camera was similar than the frequency of the cutting force measuring system. This similarity is provided with the system set-up synchronization.
Law requires from employers to assess occupational risk in workplaces. A well-executed occupational risk assessment promotes the improve-ment of working conditions and reduces a negative impacts on employees’ health and life. Employers by conducting occupational risk assess-ment not only meet legal requirements but also benefit from it in two ways. They eliminate loss of an enterprise connected with employees’ absence, and they also decrease the probability of high compensation pay due to situations that have a destructive influence on the employees’ health. However, in order to benefit from such actions, firstly, it is necessary to select a risk assessment method properly, then to apply it and implement preventive measures. The paper presents the results of the occupational risk assessment carried out on the example of a CNC ma-chine operator by means three-stage methods in accordance with the PN-N-18001, PHA and Risc Score. Despite the subjectivity of the assess-ment, there were differences in the results. Thus, it is advisable to choose a risk assessment method skilfully, for example by comparing several similar methods.
In the aerospace industry, passenger safety depends on proper quality control at each production stage. The main responsibility for the correct operation of the aircraft lies within a gas turbine. A proper and rigorous selection of the gas turbine construction material is required, and in a further step, the method of joining the construction parts. Nickel superalloys due to the high heat resistance, strength and creep resistance at high temperatures, toughness and corrosion resistance, are very often used for the construction of a gas turbine engine. In the next step, the selection of joining method is necessary. This method must be able to achieve high-quality connections, resistant to work at high temperatures and corrosive environments. The most effective bonding method that meets the above conditions is brazing. In this study non-destructive (visual) test and destructive (metallographic) test of brazed joint of Inconel 718 and Inconel 625 were conducted.
Aluminium is one of raw materials that can be practically continuously recycled. Thanks to the proper sorting of aluminium scrap it is possible to produce precisely the same products that it was made before Selective waste collection and an extensive network of waste collection points have significant impact on the recovery level of used aluminium beverage cans. The purpose of the article was to analyse the results of surveys on aluminium segregation in Silesia voivodship. According to literature people are increasingly interested in environmental protection and what is happening with waste generated by them. But there is lack of information about people from different regions of Poland. From the research presented in the paper it can be concluded that people realize that used aluminium beverage cans become packaging waste which can be easily recycled so most of them segregate them in everyday life. This is the result of changes in the legislation on municipal waste and their segregation, as well as the element of environmental education.
Maps are constantly developing, also, the newly defined High Definition (HD) maps increase the map content remarkably. They are based on three-dimensional survey, like laser scanning, and then stored in a fully new structured way to be able to support modern-day vehicles. Beyond the traditional lane based map content, they contain information about the roads’ neighbourhood. The goal of these maps is twofold. Primarily, they store the connections where the vehicles can travel with the description of the road-environment. Secondly, they efficiently support the exact vehicle positioning. The paper demonstrates the first results of a pilot study in the creation of HD map of an urban and a rural environment. The applied data collection technology was the terrestrial laser scanning, where the obtained point cloud was evaluated. The data storage has been solved by an in-house developed information storage model with the ability to help in vehicle control processes.
The results of route planning researches are monitored by logistic and automotive industries. The economic aspects of the cost saving are in the focus of the attention. An optimal route could cause time or fuel savings. An effective driving or an optimal route is a good basis to achieve an economical aim. Moreover the spread of new automotive solutions especially in case of electric cars the optimisation has particular significance regarding the limited battery storage. Additionally the autonomous car development could not be neglected. As a result the society could expect safer roads, better space usage and effective resource management. Nevertheless the requirements of users are extremely diverse, which is not negligible. Supporting these aims, in this paper the connection between the multimodal route planning and the user requirements are investigated. The examination is focused to a sensitivity analysis and a survey to evaluate the data and support the settings of a user habit effect to the final route.
There are several methods of automotive diagnostics used in services to detect a large variety of faults and damages of various parts of engines of internal combustion. Undoubtedly, they are effective, but they are simply unable to find all types of mechanical faults occurring during the operation. This is the reason why authors of this paper tried to use a special tool, which has been proven for years for detecting faults of rolling element bearing in rotating machinery. During their research, the authors tried to find valuable results by measuring vibration of various parts of engines. Three items were tested, a Diesel engine and two Otto motors. A large number of measurements have been taken at various speed, at different points, in different directions, with different parameter setup, etc. However, there was one setup which has been applied to all three engines. It is the measurement setup of vibration velocity, in the frequency range of 2 Hz-300 Hz. Valuable consequences have been found regarding the clogging of the air filters and the exhaust systems. As a conclusion the authors expressed their opinion, that, apart from the traditional diagnostic methods used in services, vibration measurements can also be useful, especially for detecting faults of rolling element bearings.
This article presents selected aspects connected to work safety, related to production facilities in Poland, where production lines are installed as new, or transferred from other locations. The author focuses on ensuring work safety from the moment the decision of is made by company authorities, through the transfer of all production means and their commissioning to a regular production stage. The article contains the review of legislation, literature on technology transfer as well as researches and experiences of the author gained during his cooperation with international companies from the industries like food, energy, automotive and others.
The concept of an Agile Organization is the part of the management concepts which aim at adjustment of the production to ever changing environmet. In today’s fast changing landscape, agility may prove to be the difference between success and failure for any business. An organization can be agile only and only if it is focused on business drivers and the factors that shape the business drivers. The aim of the article is to present the concept of an Agile Organization and to identify its basic assumptions for the production in the face of crisis.
The article focuses on the analysis of the internal damping changes depending on the amplitude of the magnesium alloy AZ31. Internal damping reflects the ability of the material irreversibly dissipating mechanical energy oscillations. It means that the material of high internal damping ability is able to significantly reduce the vibration amplitude. Internal damping is, generally, dependent on many factors (temperature, material purity, grain size, mechanical and thermal processing, etc.) and its value is determined by interactions between various mechanisms dissipation of mechanical energy. Ultrasonic resonance method was used in experimental measurements, which is based on continuous excitation of oscillations of the specimen, and the entire apparatus vibrates at a frequency which is near to the resonance. Starting resonance frequency for all measurements was about f = 20470 Hz.