This article tries to pursue three goals: first, how can a hard-to-define cultural concept such as tolerance in society be measured? Second, is it possible to draw conclusions about the tolerance level of a nation on the basis of an analysis of web search behaviour? And third, is there a relationship between the tolerance level in East Asian societies and their ability to attract highly qualified knowledge workers? Taking as its starting point Richard Florida’s claim that a high tolerance level in society represents an essential pull factor for attracting the most sought-after people in the world, this article analyses and interprets web search behaviour among Google users residing in Japan, Korea and China in order to identify issues related to tolerance in East Asia.
This article provides the reader with an outline of academic research on comfort women in China: its development and its main topics, the disciplines involved in the discourse and the timeline of events triggering and intensifying research in this area are discussed. Using a quantitative as well as a qualitative approach, I attempt to position these debates firstly within international discourses and secondly within general PRC historiography. The hypothesis being proposed is that in terms of topic as well as concerning the mode of research and presentation, comfort women-related research has been strongly influenced by an imagined Japanese revisionist interlocutor.
The article focuses on the representation of wartime Japan as a home (and home country) by analysing contemporary popular songs. Within this frame I show examples of how the Japanese state managed to influence the Japanese people through propaganda songs in order to gain the people’s moral support for the war effort. My essay aims further at drawing a picture of Japan’s musical world from the latter half of the 1930s to the end of World War II, as a detailed consideration of popular music and its surroundings always allows us to interpret much more than expected at first view.
In addition, I consider the mass media as a supporter of Japan’s ideological aims. The history of radio and record companies is firmly interwoven with the efforts of the Japanese state to manipulate people during the war years. The contribution from artists must also be considered an important part of this mosaic.
In 1978–1979 the news reporting on the Vietnamese boat people attracted attention from the whole world. Not only the media but also scientific researchers were interested in these mass refugees. However, this phenomenon has been detached from its context and perceived as a self-contained event on many occasions. Furthermore, most people were not aware of the fact that the main body of these refugees were ethnic Chinese, known as the Hoa. The study presented in this paper takes this as its starting point and focuses on the question of the motivations of the Hoa in leaving North Vietnam. It takes the historical, internal and foreign political context into consideration and identifies a political atmosphere extremely hostile to the ethnic Chinese.The páihuá policy drove them to leave behind what they had built up and led to the mass exodus of 1978–1979, but also gave the Hoa hope for a new and better life for themselves and especially for their future descendants outside of Vietnam.
While the organisation of sports in different countries is structured primarily on regional sports clubs, sports in Japan are based to a large extent on corporate sports. In corporate sports, Japanese companies are the owners of sports teams and their members must be employees of the company, meaning that the athletes work in addition to their sporting activities.
This article deals with the system of corporate sports, using the example of corporate judo teams. First, the author gives a detailed description of the corporate judo teams to show how the system works. The question is then posed why the corporate sports system still exists in judo while a large number of teams in many other sports have broken up since the 1990s, and the breakdown of the corporate sports system will be analysed.
Reasons for the preservation of the corporate sports system in judo were found in business relations, in the marketing of sports, in the organisation of sports in Japan and in the special importance of judo in that country. However, although the corporate sports system has been maintained in Japanese judo up to the present day, a trend towards a modern form of corporate sports can be seen.
The awarding of the world’s best known literature prize to the controversial Austrian writer Elfriede Jelinek in 2004 triggered off worldwide hype in its reception. So far, Jelinek’s works have been translated into more than 40 languages. Chinese is one of them. Although the author’s first works had already been translated back in the 1990s, on the Chinese mainland all translations of her works were actually published only after the key event of the Nobel Prize. They immediately received immense attention from the Chinese public and unleashed what could even be termed a ‘Jelinek fever’. This paper is devoted to shedding light on the first introduction and the unexpected success of this controversial Austrian Nobel laureate in the Chinese book market. It will give an overview of the Chinese translations of Jelinek’s works and will try to reveal some of the dynamics that led to their actual selection, translation, publication, marketing and status as bestsellers. The challenges of the rapidly transforming Chinese publishing industry and the impact of these challenges on the reception of foreign literature will be discussed. Furthermore, the paper will outline the crucial role of the intermediaries, especially of the powerful literary agency involved, in this process of cultural transfer.
Two successive Japanese hostage cases in Iraq in April 2004, where hostage-takers demanded the withdrawal of the Self Defence Forces in return for release of the hostages, turned into a discussion about ‘self-responsibility’.
This paper concentrates on an analysis of the discursive representation of ‘self-responsibility’. The aim is to explain how the media discourse on the hostage crisis and the hostages’ ‘self-responsibility’ is regulating and determining social structures with respect to which tasks self-responsibility has to take over, on the basis of the critical discourse analysis proposed by Norman Fairclough
The argument is that the principle of self-responsibility has come to replace the hitherto valid responsibility of the state to protect its citizens. This is happening in favour of the newly emerging principle of not accepting terrorism and of fulfilling one’s duty as an international state.
The present article explores representations of male-male sexuality and eroticism in humorous tales of the Edo period. The point of departure for the discussion is the metaphor of ‘back’ and ‘front’, which delineated the sexual options available to a grown-up man, namely anal sex with males and vaginal sex with female partners. A brief preliminary overview of the custom of male love (nanshoku), which forms the unifying theme of the tales under discussion, is provided. After an introduction to the genre of Edo-period humorous tales (shōwa or kobanashi), the article centres on the depiction of male-male intercourse and eroticism in this type of literature, and argues that certain discrepancies, relevant from a gender perspective, become discernible in the respective representations of the two partners of a nanshoku relationship. It is shown how the metaphor of ‘back’ and ‘front’ is grounded in sexual practice, how it functioned and how it is employed for the achievement of a comic effect in the tales. The article then goes on to address the question of the extent to which male sexuality can be said to move ‘between the back and the front’, and some thoughts on gender and desire in the Edo period are offered.
This article is about kiwifruit production in the north-western part of Húnán province in central China. It provides an overview of the kiwifruit industry in China and traces the development of kiwifruit production in this specific region. It presents the results of a case study conducted at Jíshǒu University in Xiǎngxī Tǔjīa and Miáo Autonomous Prefecture. Situated in a poor and economically underdeveloped area, the university concentrates on local minorities and the development of the region. It has initiated many projects to help in lifting poverty, one of them being the Kiwifruit Project, which encourages local farmers to get actively involved in kiwifruit production and processing. The paper highlights the cooperation between the academic institution, an industrial partner and government agencies in this endeavour. It addresses the problems and challenges that the establishment of a kiwifruit industry in Xiǎngxī has faced over a run of more than two decades, shows solutions based on innovation as in the form of developing new breeds or the introduction of organic farming, and evaluates the socioeconomic as well as the ecological impact the project has had on the local society and environment.
As an attempt to compare Lǐ Hè, a Chinese poet from the Táng Dynasty, and the French 19th century poet Arthur Rimbaud (in spite of a total lack of any traceable historical, cultural and inter-textual connections), this paper focuses on linguistic and stylistic phenomena serving as a proof for a striking resemblance between the two authors. Thus the first part of the article deals with effects of focalization, a specific conception of the metaphor as well as the status of the lyrical subject, establishing a theoretical basis for the concrete comparison presented in the second part. The conclusion is concerned with the question if the poems of Lǐ Hè can be translated into French by ‛adopting‟ Rimbaud‟s poetic language.