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Subject and purpose of work: The article compares cleaning services markets in Warsaw and Moscow. The productivity of work is the subject of the research, but not in the traditional neoclassical interpretation, but within the institutional economy. The aim of the article is to show new ways of analyzing work productivity using institutional methodology.

Materials and methods: The article uses a conventional method, which is a combination of institutional and neoclassical methodology. It covers sociological research tools and statistical methods of data processing used for quantitative analysis as part of the institutional approach.

Results: Similar parameters of human capital indicators were obtained in the employees of both markets. The indicators of opportunism in the representatives of the employees of the Moscow market are much higher, which significantly reduces the quantitative values of the institutional work productivity in Eastern markets.

Conclusions: In order to increase institutional work productivity in Eastern European markets (Russia) and to reduce opportunistic behavior of transaction participants, it is necessary to modernize institutional environment in these countries.


Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this paper is Measure 121 of the 2007-2013 RDP, called Modernisation of agricultural holdings. The objective of the study was to present the diversification of regional absorption of aid funds used under this measure and to assess the correlation between the scale of the use of these funds and the level of labor productivity in agriculture.

Materials and methods: On the basis of the GUS data, the regional differentiation of the absorption of aid funds from the analyzed measure and labor productivity in agriculture were assessed. The relation between these categories was determined based on Pearson’s linear correlation index.

Results and conclusions: A strong regional diversification of labor productivity in agriculture and the level of utilization of European Union funds directed at modernization of agricultural holdings was observed. There is a relation between the scale of the utilization of funds under Measure 121 of the RDP and the efficiency of labor factor. It can therefore be assumed that the form of support investigated is a significant stimulus for the increase in the level of work efficiency.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of this research was to determine changes in the population of native animal breeds and to indicate the importance of subsidies under agri-environmental programs. The study concerned the years 1999-2017.

Materials and methods: The research was based on the documentation of the National Research Institute of Animal Production (PIB). An assessment of the population size of native animal breeds was carried out depending on the amount of subsidies from the national subsidy up to 2004 and from agri-environmental programs since 2005.

Results: Since the integration of Poland with the European Union and the mobilization of funds from agri-environmental programs, a successive increase in the number of farm animals covered by the protection program has been noted.

Conclusions: This investigation demonstrated a considerable, but not exclusive dependence of the dynamics of the growth of the livestock population covered by the protection program on the amount of subsidies for breeders. The preservation of EU subsidies through agri-environmental programs in the years to come is the basis for maintaining the upward trend in the abundance of native livestock populations. Also, a greater increase in the number of animals than in the number of new beneficiaries using agri-environmental programs was observed, and this is a situation conducive to breeding work. National surveys show that native breeds are a source of obtaining products with pro-health, regional and traditional properties, for which the demand is growing, and which can also help to protect the biodiversity of farm animals.


Subject and purpose of work: The goal of the article is to characterize the “slow city” model, its assumptions, conditions and effects of its implementation in Polish conditions. It also aims to present intelligent solutions in using own resources of small cities.

Materials and methods: The article was based on the study and synthesis of Polish and foreign literature and a review of strategic documents of Polish cities belonging to Cittaslow.

Results: The article fills the existing gap in the area of contemporary strategies for the development of small towns. It describes the “slow city” model, on the basis of which small cities belonging to the Cittaslow city network are developing. Intelligent solutions in the use of endogenous own resources of small cities are also presented.

Conclusions: The analysis carried out made it possible to state that the “slow city” model is useful in the development of small towns. It guarantees optimal and intelligent use of endogenous resources of a small town. However, the review of the strategic documents of the cities of “slow city” shows that these cities affect, like most small cities, negative socio-economic phenomena.


Subject and purpose of work: The article explores the issue of protected areas in the Podlaskie Province with particular reference to Natura 2000 areas. Its purpose is to investigate the familiarity of those areas as well as the perception of their attractiveness among the inhabitants of the Podlaskie Province.

Materials and methods: Surveys conducted in the study involved 275 adult inhabitants of the Podlaskie Province. The selection of the research sample was accidental.

Results: The meaning of the Natura 2000 concept was widely known among the respondents. These areas were considered to be attractive to tourists and quite often visited by the respondents. The most popular were the Bialowieza, Augustow and Knyszyn Forests. Hiking, cycling and canoeing were held most often in those areas

Conclusions: Natura 2000 areas in the Podlasie Province constitute a valuable and popular tourist destination. What they need is proper tourism organization so as to give visitors an opportunity to get acquainted with their most important values, as well as ensure sustainable tourism and area protection.


Subject and purpose of work: the purpose of this article is to present the opportunities for rural development and the benefits of participation in the Regional Operational Program of the Lublin Province for the years 2007-2013, as well as the estimation of the level of satisfaction of the inhabitants of the Rossosz Commune in the Bialski Poviat, Lublin Province, using renewable energy sources co-financed by EU funds. Materials and methods: this work was created with the use of author’s interview questionnaire as the basic research tool. The survey was carried out among the inhabitants of the Rossosz Commune. Results and conclusions: participation in the “Clean Energy in the Zielawy Valley” project contributed to the development of rural areas in the Biała Podlaska Poviat of the Lubelskie Province and it was a fundamental factor enabling the installation of devices using renewable energy. The research shows that the vast majority of respondents appreciated the benefits of renewable energy installations and many of them envisage to make use of the possibility of installing renewable energy devices in the near future.


Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of this work is to present the problem of municipal waste management, and its use for the production of electric and thermal energy. Materials and methods: The information used is derived from the CSO publication for 2015 in the scope of the data on municipal waste and electric energy per province. To establish the rankings of provinces, the method of zero unitarisation was applied, whose task is to bring various variables to the state of comparability with different titres and orders of magnitudes; and then the results derived from the two rankings were compared. Results: The rankings of provinces with respect to the state of waste management and obtaining electrical energy in Poland in 2015 were presented. These rankings are characterized by a significant degree of similarity. Conclusions: Regional differentiation in individual Polish provinces in 2015 is relatively moderate.


Subject and purpose of work: The main task of this paper is to examine the proximity of valuations generated by different valuation models to stock prices in order to investigate their reliability at Macedonian Stock Exchange (MSE) and to present alternative “scenario” methodology for discounted free cash flow to firm valuation. Materials and methods: By using publicly available data from MSE we are calculating stock prices with three stock valuation models: Discounted Free Cash Flow, Dividend Discount and Relative Valuation. Results: The evaluation of performance of three stock valuation models at the MSE identified that model of Price Multiplies (P/E and other profitability ratios) offer reliable stock values determination and lower level of price errors compared with the average stocks market prices. Conclusions: The Discounted Free Cash Flow (DCF) model provides values close to average market prices, while Dividend Discount (DDM) valuation model generally mispriced stocks at MSE. We suggest the use of DCF model combined with relative valuation models for accurate stocks’ values calculation at MSE.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the study is to assess the regional differentiation of the average level of farm income and to answer the question of whether during 2006-2014 there was a tendency towards convergence in this area. Materials and methods: The spatial scope of research included four FADN agricultural regions, whereas the time span covered the years 2006-2014. The numerical data used for the analyses were sourced from standard FADN results. The assessment of convergence was carried out using the coefficient of variation (sigma convergence) and the relative index of changes in the regions compared to the country (beta convergence). Results: The conducted research indicates the existence of regional disproportions in terms of average income level and average labour profitability on farms. The highest average income was achieved throughout all the years covered by research in the region of Pomerania and Masuria, and the lowest one in Lesser Poland and Carpathian Foothills. The research demonstrates that during 2006-2014 there was no convergence in the average level of income and average labour profitability of farms in the FADN regions. Conclusions: Convergence is a long-term process, so the research should be treated as an initial examination of the regional differentiation of the income situation of farms.


Subject and purpose of work: The objective of the thesis was to present the differentiation of sheep production represented in the sheep population in Poland and to determine directions of changes in the sheep population in Poland. Disparities in the regional differentiation of sheep production and their causes were also shown. Materials and methods: The spatial range of research covered 16 provinces, while the time range covered the year 2015. Sources of the materials were: domestic and foreign literature as well as data from the Central Statistical Office (GUS in Polish). Data analysis and presentations were based on descriptive, tabular, graphical and indicatory methods, as well as the Pearson linear correlation coefficient. Results: The conducted research shows the presence of disparities between provinces, because there are provinces with large populations and stocking density of these animals but there also exist territorial units with a very small number of sheep. There was also a large decrease in the number of sheep found in most provinces. Conclusions: The existence of a significant link between the share of pastures in AL (agricultural land) and the sheep population in provinces was confirmed. Correlation occurred only in the case of this parameter. The conducted research should be treated as a pilot study.