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Abstract

The increased growth and commercialization of adventure tourism led to a number of changes in the profile of the individuals who now engage in adventure activities. As a result, previous understandings of adventure tourism motivations may no longer be valid. This study seeks to investigate the influence of these changes by analyzing the motivations of tourists who have engaged in adventure tourism across a range of commercial adventure activities. This is done through data collected from participants in adventure tourism, throughout South Africa, using a push and pull factor approach to motivations. The results show the increasing influence of the experiences with nature in motivations, particularly in the context of pull factors. The role of risk and thrill in motivations, which has been emphasized in previous literature, is found to be relatively minimal among these respondents. Furthermore, adventure tourism experiences are found to be dynamic, with an increasing number of significant factors influencing decision-making. It also demonstrates notable differences in the motivations of participants, based on the type of activity in which they engage.

Abstract

Rapid urban growth can exert negative effects on the natural environment due to the loss of naturally vegetated areas, loss of biological diversity, deforestation and soil erosion. The condition of cities is inherently linked with the natural environment which has a positive influence on health, social relations, human welfare and economic activity. Urban areas should abound in green spaces, and should also be easily accessible to the general public. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, influence and quality of urban green spaces on the example of the city of Tczew in northern Poland. The proposed methodology can be applied in cities of a similar size and urban structure to promote rational management of urban green space in line with the principles of sustainable development and spatial order. The Green-Space Record, a useful tool for inventorying urban green spaces, was developed to pursue the main research goal. The information accumulated in the Record constitutes valuable input data for further analysis, including the determination of the area, distribution, influence and quality of urban green spaces. The results of the analysis revealed that urban green spaces occupy more than 19% of Tczew’s territory, which is equivalent to 70.6 m2 per resident. Managed green spaces span the area of only 66.75 ha (11.31 m2 per resident) and are unevenly distributed in the city. More than half of these areas are found in the Stare Miasto (Old Town) district, whereas two residential districts (Gdańska, Prątnica) are completely devoid of public greens. The quality of urban green spaces is generally satisfactory in Tczew; however, not all residents have equal access to high-quality public greens.

Abstract

Poverty eradication is an urgent task set by the world community in the Millennium Development Goals. Studying the success of Brazil, China and Russia as regional leaders in reducing poverty is of great scientific and practical interest for economic geographers in terms of typological peculiarities as well as the approaches and tools used. The article highlights the main features of modern countries’ social and economic development which contributed to poverty reduction or inhibited the process in the past several decades. It reveals the similarities and differences in the approaches to poverty measurement in three BRICS countries (Brazil, China and Russia) that showed the biggest progress towards poverty eradication and presents a comparative analysis of poverty research and measurement methods used at the national level.

Abstract

The contribution intends to present a framework as updated as possible on Azerbaijan, a country of which we are hearing more and more but not very well known and known to most, trying to provide an overview of what Azerbaijan is today, paying particular attention to the history of this interesting country in order to understand what it is today and even more what is the path taken for its future development. Therefore, some areas and aspects of the country have been identified, which will be, to follow, argued. Starting from the entirely geographical aspects to the more socio-cultural, then moving on to international relations and geopolitics and finally to the economic aspects.

Abstract

The article aims to illustrate how Azerbaijan appeared in the eyes of an Italian who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, had the opportunity to visit it during a trip to Constantinople. Between 1841 and 1842, Felice De Vecchi, a wealthy Milanese passionate about painting and travel, embarked on a journey, together with his naturalist friend Gaetano Osculati, to Constantinople and then, through Persia, visited India. He kept a diary of that journey, only recently found in its almost totality, dedicating an entire chapter to Azerbaijan, the “land of fires”. From his account, rich in anthropological and pictorial notations, emerges a very well-defined sketch that does not hide the wonder of those who meet housing situations and customs far from their country of origin. In order not to lose the most emotional component contained in De Vecchi’s writing, the frequent quotations of passages from the diary are presented in the English translation, followed by the original text in nineteenth-century Italian.

Abstract

The present paper intends to analyse the current urban situation of the city of Baku. Starting from its history and the vicissitudes that have seen the alternating city periods of splendour with gloomy moments, some of the great urban projects realised since the end of the 20th century and which are transforming the appearance of Baku are taken into consideration. Accomplice a new moment of splendour, favoured by the huge proceeds of the oil industry, the city of Baku is, in fact, revolutionising its appearance and its structure to become a new city of global importance, as it happened for Dubai.

Abstract

This wants to be a contribution for those who want to understand the Bologna process, intergovernmental cooperation of 48 European countries in the field of higher education. The Bologna process guides the collective effort of public authorities, universities, teachers, and students, together with stakeholder associations, employers, quality assurance agencies, international organisations, and institutions, including the European Commission, on how to improve the internationalisation of higher education, a project that is at the base of the modernization of the European educational system and well beyond.

Abstract

This paper is focused on the presentation of developmental tendencies of regional disparities in Slovakia in 2001 and 2011 from the point of view of selected and relevant socio-economic and demographic indicators. To test the divergence hypothesis of the regional disparities at a district level, these are evaluated by using multidimensional analysis of 14 indicators. The overall level and development of regional disparities are measured with the help of the methods of descriptive statistics and multi-criteria assessments (integrated index). The results confirm the hypothesis of divergence development as the basic tendency of regional development in Slovakia. The presented research has documented evident time shortening of significant changes in regions drifting towards divergent development. Rapid and, up to now, unprecedented changes (employment and wages growth, enterprise development, foreign investments increase, etc.), are evident and reflected in the majority of indicators – however, with different impacts on the regional level.

Abstract

The Erasmus + Project Initiative began for the first time in 2014, but this was not the first time that the Erasmus project strategy came into being. This publication aims to understand its origins and the reasoning behind this particular initiative. It analyses the fundamental steps taken towards the creation of the Erasmus + Project Strategy and how it has helped shape a European Identity.

Abstract

The Brazilian official statistics show that the country is mainly urban, while authors including Veiga (2002) and Miranda and Silva (2013) present a more rural Brazil. The absence of a uniform way to define the rural areas in Brazil has led to diffused data about rural Brazil’s size. Therefore, are Brazilian regions predominantly urban, rural or intermediate? This paper applies the rural definition methodologies from Eurostat/European Union to the municipalities of Brazil. The results show the predominance of the intermediary category in Brazilian territory, while the population mostly lives in urban areas. However, due to methodological characteristics, this paper reinforces the necessity of developing other methodologies which would be able to identify rurality and urbanity, considering socioeconomic dimensions.