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Subject and purpose of work: The article addresses the issue of the increasing use of payment cards in Poland and related consequences in the number and volume of transactions cash and cashless. The article analyzes the growing importance of cards as a transaction medium of Poles. The topic of potential alternative payment methods was also discussed.

Materials and methods: The study used the analysis of literature and source data from, among others, National Bank of Poland,, database, websites of banks and others. Descriptive and statistical methods were used in order to prepare the research.

Results: In Poland, the number of cards owned by citizens is growing rapidly, as well as the volume and number of transactions concluded with them. Customers, banks and economic and commercial units are most interested in payment cards market.

Conclusions: Transaction with cards deepens customer attachment to a particular brand of the organization and allows to gain benefit from transaction fees. The popularization of cards results in a limited share of cash in transactions. Making debit card payments requires customers to have sufficient deposits on the account, which is also an advantage for the bank. It is expected that the scope and role of mobile payments will grow dynamically.


Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the paper is to present the state of and prospects for the development of cycling tourism in Central Roztocze, a physico-geographical mesoregion in south- eastern Poland.

Materials and methods: The research was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using the survey technique and a literature review. It was carried out in the period from April to June 2018 on a sample of 128 tourists.

Results: The research showed that tourists most often cycle several times a week, covering distances of more than 30 km. The main reason for visiting this region is its natural values. The general assessment of the tourist routes indicates that they are not sufficiently prepared for tourists. It was also shown that in order to popularise cycling tourism, it is necessary to expand lodging facilities, and to provide more practical information about routes.

Conclusions: The main factor encouraging tourists to visit Central Roztocze is its natural beauty. The general condition of the routes was assessed by the respondents as “average”. The factor conducive to the development of cycling tourism in Central Roztocze might be the development of the cycling infrastructure, including lodging facilities and practical information on cycling trails.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the work is to present the possibilities and assess the use of support for smart specializations under the EU cohesion policy 2014-2020 in the Lubelskie Voivodeship. Research tasks: classification of projects implemented under the ROP of the Lubelskie Voivodeship 2014-2020 (ROP LV) depending on their adaptation to the region’s smart specializations; determining the size of support for the development of region’s smart specializations.

Materials and methods: The research material is a database of projects co-financed from EU funds for 2014-2020, projects implemented under axis 1 of ROP LV were analyzed.

Results: The total value of funding for the region’s smart specializations was PLN 194 million. The largest number of projects was implemented by enterprises within the specialization of IT and automation. About 20% of funds were acquired by entities from outside the smart specialization industries.

Conclusions: ROP LV is an important tool to support research and development activities in the Lubelskie Voivodeship.


Subject and purpose of work: Recently, research into the impact of air transport on the situation on local labor markets has been of great practical importance. These issues have become a source of interest in the study. The purpose of the article is an attempt to use taxonomic methods to analyze the spatial diversity of counties located in the catchment area (100 km) of Warsaw Chopin Airport due to the situation on local labor markets.

Materials and methods: Taxonomic methods were used as the research tool. The text also presents the methodology for identifying statistical units located in these areas, indicated by the Geostatistics Portal.

Results: The conducted process allowed to assess the impact of air transport on the economic situation on the local labor market due to the indicators selected for the study. The proposed method is a new, effective, useful and modern approach to obtaining and analyzing statistical data for the areas of influence of Polish airports. It should also be emphasized that it constitutes a certain contribution of the author to the development of research on the impact of air transport on the socio-economic development of regions.

Conclusions: The analysis allowed us to generally illustrate the spatial inequalities of the units selected for testing due to the adopted measures.


Wedding tourism is a fast emerging niche market both globally and in South Africa, as destination weddings are becoming increasingly popular. Wedding industries across the world, and specifically in South Africa, are increasingly dependent on the natural environment. Wedding venues with floral gardens, farms, orchards or forests are particularly popular. Beyond the venue, flowers are important for the bouquets and decoration, with popular blooms changing year on year. Shifting phenology – the timing of annually recurrent biological events – has been identified as one of the most sensitive responses to climate change. This poses a threat to the sustainability of floral wedding venues and the floral industry relating to weddings. This exploratory study utilizes an interdisciplinary mixed-method approach to record the importance of flowers in South African weddings and the perceived threats of climate change to this subsector. The respondents reveal the importance of flowers and the outdoors in both symbolism and the enjoyment of the wedding day, and had organised their wedding date to align with flowering. Destinations highlight a lack of awareness regarding phenological threats and are relatively unperturbed about the threats of climate change. Comparison to global phenological shifts reveals that these are misplaced. There is, therefore, a need for such wedding venues to adopt adaptive strategies to preserve their environment which drives wedding tourism.


Voting is becoming of significance in Nigeria, as in many other countries in Africa. Although Nigerian electoral politics has attracted full attention from scholars, there is little research on the factors that determine voter turnout in the country at the local level, especially the South-East geopolitical zone (GPZ). This paper is a stepwise logistic regression analysis of the determinants of voting in Nsukka council in Enugu State, South-East GPZ of Nigeria. The results show that age (0.230), education (0.532), marital status (1.355), political trust (1.309) and partisanship (˗0.570) are significant predictors of voter turnout. The effect of age, education, marital status and political trust on voting is positive and statistically significant, but partisanship has a statistically significant negative relationship with voting (p<0.01). The paper highlights the importance of local level geographical differentials in the factors influencing voting in Nigeria.


The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the sporting success of football clubs, their market value and the economic performance of the regions they are located in. All member states of the European Union are under consideration, taking into account the success of the clubs in the highest-ranked male national football competitions and in European cups. The data are processed at NUTS 2 level over a period of one decade (2007–2016). From a methodological point of view, it is beneficial to construct original indexes of clubs’ sporting performance – both at the national level, and an overall one that also takes into account results in international (European) competition. To determine the existence of a link between the sporting performance of the club, its market value and the economic performance of the regional level unit it is located in (measured by gross domestic product), correlation and regression analysis is utilised. For example, the results show a high positive statistical link between a club’s sporting performance and its market value, but a relevant direct statistical link has also been confirmed between the economic performance of the region and the market value of the club, with respect to its sporting success. However, the analysis also showed that the club of a relatively poor region (from a pan-European point of view) could reach above-average results at the highest European level, and vice versa – a club with a high market value, from an economically highly over-developed region, could lag behind.


Since ancient times, climate change has largely determined the fate of human civilisation, which was related mainly to changes in the structure and habitats of forest cover. In the context of current climate change, one must know the capabilities of forests to stabilise the climate by increasing biomass and carbon-depositing abilities. For this purpose, the authors compiled a database of harvest biomass (t/ha) in 900 spruce (Picea spp.) sample plots in the Eurasian area and used the methodology of multivariate regression analysis. The first attempt at modelling changes in the biomass additive component composition has been completed, according to the Trans-Eurasian hydrothermal gradients. It is found that the biomass of all components increases with the increase in the mean January temperature, regardless of mean annual precipitation. In warm zonal belts with increasing precipitation, the biomass of most of the components increases. In the process of transitioning from a warm zone to a cold one, the dependence of all biomass components upon precipitation is levelled, and at a mean January temperature of ˗30°C it becomes a weak negative trend. With an increase in temperature of 1°C in different ecoregions characterised by different values of temperature and precipitation, there is a general pattern of decrease in all biomass components. With an increase in precipitation of 100 mm in different ecoregions characterised by different values of temperature and precipitation, most of the components of biomass increase in warm zonal belts, and decrease in cold ones. The development of such models for the main forest-forming species of Eurasia will make it possible to predict changes in the productivity of the forest cover of Eurasia due to climate change.


The paper introduces a model of how workers rationally decide to which country within an area of monetary and economic integration they will move for the purposes of living and working. Since Mundell accomplished his pivotal respective analyses, the Optimal Currency Area (OCA) literature has highlighted the importance of the reallocation of the labour force within common currency areas in order to cushion asymmetric shocks. However, several studies have put into question whether such a mobility may be considered adequately effective and efficient within the Euro Zone and, hence, political solutions have been urgently requested. This paper, using the concept of employment protection legislation (EPL), looks at the impact of the different flexibility degrees applied among national labour markets on the international labour movements within the Euro Zone, and it then proposes a reform of such in terms of the degrees of flexibility that could achieve the optimal point.


The article presents an assessment of the potential of the cultural sector in Poland from a regional perspective. The author analysed statistical data from 2005–2017 on changes in demand for selected cultural products and services. A conclusion was reached using linear sequencing, which aimed to establish a value for a synthetic indicator showing the situation of the cultural sector in the regions. This indicator was calculated on the basis of characteristics referring to cultural infrastructure resources, cultural activities, cultural expenditure and income in the cultural sector. In the obtained list of regions, the highest places were achieved by the Lubelskie, Zachodniopomorskie and Dolnośląskie voivodships. The weakest result was achieved by the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship. However, the scores obtained were generally low – none of the regions achieved high scores in all partial values. Considering the relatively small differences between the values of the indicator, it is possible that the obtained picture will change due, among others, to the high dynamics of changes in expenditures being incurred in the cultural sector.