This paper analyses the floristic biodiversity of weed communities in the arable lands of the Istrian peninsula during a twelve year period (2005–2017). A total of 50 fields were surveyed for each sampling time using the seven-degree Braun-Blanquet cover abundance scale in the following agricultural categories: a) permanent crops (vineyards/olive groves), b) alfalfa fields, c) cereals, d) row crops and e) ruderal areas. The taxonomic identification was performed during the full development of vegetation, for cereals in June and July, and for the rest – in August and September. A total of 175 weed species were determined during both study periods with Asteraceae and Poaceae families as the most abundant. Altogether, therophytes were dominant in both surveys, followed by hemycryptophytes and geophytes. Variations in species composition were visible in both study periods (2005 and 2017) as well as in the selected habitat types. Exclusive species were found in addition to those that were common for both surveys. Changes in species composition between 2005 and 2017 referred to the difference in row spacing in earlier period, and ruderal vs. agricultural habitats in the recent survey. The differences in phenological traits between the past and present surveys were greatest for germination season in permanent crops and row crops, flowering start for permanent crops, flowering period for ruderal area and weed height for permanent crops. Significant differences between the past and present survey for other plant traits did not occur.
In recent decades, detrimental effects of roads have been the focus of numerous studies. Roadways have various negative effects, such as habitat fragmentation, noise and air pollution, on bird communities. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of traffic noise on the bird’s abundance during autumn period. Field operations were performed in a forest located parallel to a main high-traffic highway. The bird’s abundance was recorded using a point counting method at 27 points along three transects (65, 335 and 605 m from the road). The counting at each point was conducted every five minutes and repeated once every week (12 times during autumn). Environmental indices including the number of trees with DBH of over 20 cm, the number of standing dead trees, canopy cover percentage and Leq 30 were also measured. A total of 2950 bird belonging to 30 species were observed. The number of dominant species (more than 10) in the area considerably changed as the distance from the road increased. Leq 30 had the greatest correlation coefficient with bird abundance. Therefore, traffic noise has negative effects on the bird’s abundance in this area.
In this paper, volumetric losses in a positive displacement pump supplied with water and mineral oil are described and compared. The experimental tests were conducted using a prototype of a satellite pump (with a non-circular tooth working mechanism). In this paper, the sources of volumetric losses in this pump are characterized. On this basis, a mathematical model of these losses has been presented. The results of the calculation of volumetric losses according to the model are compared with the results of the experiment. Experimental studies have shown that the volumetric losses in the water pump are even 3.2 times greater than the volumetric losses in the oil pump. It has been demonstrated that the mathematical model describing the volumetric losses both in the water pump and in the oil pump is quite good. It has been found that the results from the loaded pump simulation (at ∆p=25MPa and ant n=1500rpm) differ from the results of the experiment by no more than 5% both for oil and water.
Integrating different modes of transport (road, rail, air and water) is important for port cities. To accommodate this need, new transport hubs must be built such as airports or sea ports. If ports are to grow, they must be accessible, a feature which is best achieved by building new roads, including fast roads. Poland must develop a network of fast roads that will provide good access to ports. What is equally important is to upgrade the network of national roads to complement fast roads. A key criterion in this case is to ensure that the roads are efficient to minimise time lost for road users and safe.
With safety standards and safety management practices varying vastly across the EU, Directive 2008/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council was a way to ensure that countries follow procedures for assessing the impact of road projects on road safety and conduct road safety audits, road safety management and road safety inspections. The main goal of the research was to build mathematical models to combine road safety measures, i.e. injury density (DI) and accident density (DA), with road and traffic factors on longer sections, all based on risk analysis. The practical objective is to use these models to develop tools for assessing how new road projects will impact road safety.
Because previous research on models to help estimate injuries (I) or injury density (DI) on long sections was scarce, the authors addressed that problem in their work. The idea goes back to how Poland is introducing procedures for assessing the effects of infrastructure on safety and developing a method to estimate accident indicators to support economic analysis for new roads, a solution applied in JASPERS. Another reason for the research was Poland’s insufficient and ineffective pool of road safety management tools in Poland. The paper presents analyses of several models which achieved satisfactory results. They are consistent with the work of other researchers and the outcomes of previous research conducted by the authors.
The authors built the models based on a segmentation of national roads into sections from 10 to 50 km, making sure that they feature consistent cross-sections and average daily traffic volumes. Models were built based on the method described by Jamroz (Jamroz, 2011). Using the available road traffic volume data, each section was assigned variables defining geometric and traffic features. Based on studies conducted on road sections, the variables were either averaged over the entire length of the section or calculated as a percentage of the variable occurring over the entire length: related to traffic volume, roadside environment or cross section
The unmanned surface vehicles (USV) are required to perform a dynamic obstacle avoidance during fulfilling a task. This is essential for USV safety in case of an emergency and such action has been proved to be difficult. However, little research has been done in this area. This study proposes an emergency collision avoidance algorithm for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) based on a motion ability database. The algorithm is aimed to address the inconsistency of the existing algorithm. It is proposed to avoid collision in emergency situations by sharp turning and treating the collision avoidance process as a part of the turning movement of USV. In addition, the rolling safety and effect of speed reduction during the collision avoidance process are considered. First, a USV motion ability database is established by numerical simulation. The database includes maximum rolling angle, velocity vector, position scalar, and steering time data during the turning process. In emergency collision avoidance planning, the expected steering angle is obtained based on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs), and the solution space, with initial velocity and rudder angle taken as independent variables, is determined by combining the steering time and rolling angle data. On the basis of this solution space, the objective function is solved by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, and the optimal initial velocity and rudder angle are obtained. The position data corresponding to this solution is the emergency collision avoidance trajectory. Then, the collision avoidance parameters were calculated based on the afore mentioned model of motion. With the use of MATLAB and Unity software, a semi-physical simulation platform was established to perform the avoidance simulation experiment under emergency situation. Results show the validity of the algorithm. Hence results of this research can be useful for performing intelligent collision avoidance operations of USV and other autonomous ships
The article presents the development of author’s concept of a diesel/hydraulic propulsion system for inland watercraft. Due to specific nature of vessel navigation on rivers, classical propulsion systems with shaft lines can be effectively replaced by systems with hydraulic power transmission. A solution is also presented of a hybrid design with extra electric port having the form of a pumping system driven from a battery of accumulators. Strong and weak points of the proposed solution are discussed and its energy efficiency is assessed.
The centrifugal magnetic fluid seals have important advantage over the conventional centrifugal seals. They maintain very good sealing capacity at static, medium and high speeds of shaft rotation, with the increased seal lifetime, and minimum torque and static friction. These seals are particularly useful in cases when the angular shaft velocity varies and sometimes decreases to nearly or exactly zero, such as in flywheel applications, ship propeller main shafts, etc. Unique properties of the magnetic fluid give rare opportunities for application in marine design, where perfect sealing together with reliable lubrication are required.
The paper presents a typical design and operation principle of a centrifugal magnetic fluid shaft seal, along with new design solutions. Not only in ocean technology and underwater robotics. Some cases of application of centrifugal magnetic fluid seals in modern sealing technology are included.
This article presents results of an analysis of impact of a designed discharge of contaminated water into the Dead Vistula (Wisła Martwa) in the region of the Isthmus (Przesmyk) with the aim of determination of a possible effect of the pollution onto protected areas of Natura 2000 (bird habitats and sites, especially the Bird Paradise – Ptasi Raj) nature reserve. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the two-dimensional modelling of unsteady transport of non-degradable dissolved matter. To this end, a numerical model of a section of the Dead Vistula was worked out. Four scenarios of hydro-dynamical conditions (2 – for average weather conditions and 2 – for stormy weather conditions) were selected. To solving the equation of pollution migration the finite volumes method (MOS) was applied. Two localizations of contaminated water discharge outlet were considered, namely: the first from the side of Siennicki Bridge before the Isthmus and the other in the section of the Brave Vistula (Wisła Śmiała) downstream the Isthmus. The obtained results made it possible to assess positively the first localization of the designed discharge outlet. In the other case there is a fear that at unfavourable hydro-meteorological conditions a water pollution may happen over Natura 2000 protected areas.
The paper presents the results of computational evaluation of the hull-propeller interaction coefficients, also referred to propulsive coefficients, based on the unsteady RANS flow model. To obtain the propulsive coefficients, the ship resistance, the open-water characteristics of the propeller, and the flow past the hull with working propeller were computed. For numerical evaluation of propeller open-water characteristics, the rotating reference frame approach was used, while for self-propulsion simulation, the rigid body motion method was applied. The rotating propeller was modelled with the sliding mesh technique. The dynamic sinkage and trim of the vessel were considered. The free surface effects were included by employing the volume of fluid method (VOF) for multi-phase flows. The self-propulsion point was obtained by performing two runs at constant speed with different revolutions. The well-known Japan Bulk Carrier (JBC) test cases were used to verify and validate the accuracy of the case studies. The solver used in the study was the commercial package Star-CCM+ from SIEMENS.
The paper presents results of numerical simulations of size effect phenomenon in concrete specimens. The behaviour of in-plane geometrically similar notched and unnotched beams under three-point bending is investigated. In total 18 beams are analysed. Concrete beams of four different sizes and five different notch to depth ratios are simulated. Two methods are applied to describe cracks. First, an elasto-plastic constitutive law with a Rankine criterion and an associated flow rule is defined. In order to obtain mesh independent results, an integral non-local theory is used as a regularisation method in the softening regime. Alternatively, cracks are described in a discrete way within Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM). Two softening relationships in the softening regime are studied: a bilinear and an exponential curve. Obtained numerical results are compared with experimental outcomes recently reported in literature. Calculated maximum forces (nominal strengths) are quantitatively verified against experimental values, but the force – displacement curves are also examined. It is shown that both approaches give results consistent with experiments. Moreover, both softening curves with different initial fracture energies can produce similar force-displacement curves.