In the process of sample selection, an important issue is the relationship between sample size and the type and complexity of the statistical model, which is the basis for testing research hypotheses. The paper presents methodological aspects of sample size determination in multilevel structural equation modelling (SEM) in the analysis of satisfaction with the banking products in Poland. The multilevel SEM results from the necessity to take into account both the sample size at the level of individual respondents, as well as at the higher level of analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient. A comparison of factor loading bias based on the Monte Carlo simulation is made for different cluster sizes and the number of clusters.
The traditional methods of risk quantification include a sensitivity analysis, a scenario analysis and a historical simulation. The true nature of risk factors changes is ignored in the traditional ‘ceteris paribus’ approach to a sensitivity analysis, hence it can be reflected in a scenario analysis and a historical simulation. The most significant disadvantage of a scenario analysis is the limited number of scenarios, whereas a historical simulation depends on historical data availability and adequacy. The Monte Carlo simulation is a clear answer to the limitations of traditional methods. The changes of risk factors reflected in the Monte Carlo simulation are simultaneous, non-linear and interdependent. The most important aspect of this method is the stage of taking up the assumptions. The purpose of the paper is to indicate that considering several reasonable sets of assumptions for the Monte Carlo simulation simultaneously can bring even more comprehensive information about enterprise risk.
The problem of production, export, import, and consumption of food was always topical for the long history of Georgia. At all stages of the society development, people need to take food and meet other of their elementary needs. Issues of food supply assurance of the Georgian population differ according to time periods. For example, in Shota Rustaveli’s poem The Knight in the Panther’s Skin it is described that the living standard in the 11th–13th centuries was quite high. At that period of time, Georgia was fed with its own grain. Along with wealth, Shota Rustaveli also characterizes poverty. Most of the state’s income was spent on the poor people, so there was a large gap between the rich and poor population.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the problem of poverty and wealth of the population was highlighted by prominent public figures: Sulkhan – Saba Orbeliani and Vakhushti Bagrationi. Ilia Chavchavadze describes the problem of poverty in the country by the end of the 19th century. Poor living conditions of the population were noted during the initial phase of Georgia in Soviet Union and during World War II. Better conditions existed at the last stage of socialism.
Meeting the population’s demand for principal foodstuffs and providing near-rational norms of such foodstuffs has always been a major objective of the governments of all times.
The prolonged transformation process of the economy of Georgia with its social characteristics was particularly painful. A sharp decline in the standard of life started from the 1990s. Before the economic collapse, a monthly rated wage in Georgia with its foodstuff purchasing power parity almost equaled that of developed countries.
This paper investigates bridge employment beyond retirement, as nowadays it is one of solutions often mentioned to stabilize pension systems in the context of an aging population. The aim of this paper is to identify individual, financial, and other factors that influence retirees to work beyond retirement in Lithuania. This research was done using unique administrative Lithuanian data, allowing to analyze post-retirement employment in Lithuania for the first time. The sample consists of 26,000 new old-age pension recipients from 2015 to 2017. By applying binary models of the probability of being employed beyond retirement, it is found out that a greater acquired retirement record, a higher average wage before retirement, and living in a bigger city with a higher employment rate were positively associated with accepting bridge employment, while a higher sickness rate, higher old-age pension, and earlier receipt of an unemployment benefit were inversely related to accepting such employment. Moreover, being a professional or manager increases the likelihood of bridge employment in comparison to unskilled workers. This probability increases even more if a person works in the public sector. Finally, some social groups were excluded, finding that widows with disabilities or widowed women with worse health are not likely to work beyond retirement and are consequently under a bigger risk of poverty. To sum up, retirees who should stay in the labor market in their old age because of their bad financial situation are less likely to do it. This suggests that persons with bigger needs, lower-skilled workers, and women deserve particular attention in labor market reforms.
Consequential (or indirect) losses in the form of lost profits are usually suffered and claimed in civil cases of breaches of supply or service contracts, unfair competition, bankruptcy cases, and other instances where a defendant’s wrongful actions cause lost profits to the plaintiff’s performance.
In litigation practice, we see a quite different approach, when the lost profits are calculated as gross margin less income tax, and in others – by multiplying the lost revenues by the company’s net profit ratio.
Methods of indirect loss calculation applied do not consider the cost structure of the plaintiff and the impact of the variation of variable and fixed costs to the lost profit calculation before and after the wrongful action of the defendant. In case lost revenues would have been received, fixed costs would remain the same, while variable (incremental) costs, which were avoided, would be generated to receive lost revenues.
Based on the international experience and practices, this article provides for a Universal Model of lost profits calculation as well as a mathematical formula of the method.
This paper argues that provision of industrial commons (IC), might be considered as a crucial factor of a cluster’s attractiveness in digital transformation, e.g. in Industry 4.0 (I4.0) time. By drawing on the qualitative case study method of Hamburg Aviation cluster (HAv), it aims at exploring the nature of IC in the leading German I4.0 cluster. Proximity emerges, even if sometimes not explicitly, as the recurring topic facilitating the provision of IC, along with the advancement of I4.0. As Industry 4.0 stipulates much uncertainty, the closeness featuring in clusters, seems to bring various benefits, which can help address challenges associated with I4.0, and faced mainly by small and medium firms (SMEs). The vicinity to key actors and the gains of networking, reflect the importance of (un)articulated proximity.3
The results of happiness analysis are presented in the form of a World Happiness Report that covers 156 countries and 17 different indicators. In the article model-based clustering ensemble is built to determine what selected European countries have similar patterns of happiness. The results are analyzed using multidimensional scaling and a decision tree to find out what factors determine cluster memberships. In the empirical part, three clusters were detected The first contains countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. They have the highest values for all the variables, except the negative affect. The second cluster contains seven countries: Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. This cluster is also the most homogeneous one. The third cluster contains eight countries: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.
The concept of competitiveness has been addressed by economic theorists and policy makers for several hundreds of years, with both groups trying to understand the drivers of economic prosperity and social welfare. This contribution does not aim to address all theoretical thoughts that may contribute to understanding the roots of the competitiveness of locations. The goal is to address the major useful theoretical contributions that permit to identify the main drivers of a territory’s competitiveness and therefore to assess the competitiveness of a specific location according to strong criteria. The first section presents the major contributions found in the classical and neo-classical theories. The second section and the third section concentrate on two majors schools providing significant thoughts on the competitiveness of locations: the Economic Geography (EG) School and the International Business (IB) School.
The aim of the paper is to identify and assess the role of economic sciences in relation to competitiveness and globalisation, two basic concepts of the market economy. This role is to explain and interpret their essence but also to determine their potential practical usefulness, primarily in the context of economic policy development. The considerations mentioned in the article are, as a rule, of a general and universal nature and do not relate especially to any particular countries or groups of countries. The basic method employed in the study is a critical analysis of the subject literature. The paper consists of an introduction, three sections, and conclusions. Section 1 contains a basic discussion of the subject of economic sciences and describes their four features: cognitive productivity, practical usefulness, dismal nature and beauty. Section 2 presents the contribution of economic sciences to understanding and interpreting the phenomenon of competitiveness. Section 3 focuses on defining and elucidating the idea of globalisation and an examination of its most important aspects. The paper ends with eight conclusions formulated on the basis of this discussion.