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Subject and purpose of work: The main objective of the article is to recommend some solutions in the area of e-tourism which could be introduced by the local government in Wałbrzych as part of activities initiated in 2017 for the development of the Smart City concept.

Materials and methods: The implementation of the objective required a detailed analysis and evaluation of the “Strategy for Sustainable Development of Wałbrzych City until 2020”as well as the key task areas of the Smart City Program Council set up in the city, including Task Teams implementing projects of smart urban solutions. In the course of the research, a literature review was also conducted to explore the ways of defining the concept of e-tourism.

Results: As a result of the literature research, the authors emphasized different aspects (dimensions) of e-tourism and described the e-tourism model for tourist consumption. The analysis of the strategic municipal documents showed that they did not contain any direct references and plans regarding the development of activities in the area of e-tourism. The current study offers recommendations for the growth of e-tourism in Wałbrzych.

Conclusions: In the context of the realisation of “Smart City for the city of Wałbrzych” program, the concept of e-tourism, according to the authors, is an opportunity for the development of tourism in the city and in the region. The catalogue of possible solutions is open and their implementation requires taking into account the needs of different groups of stakeholders, including people with disabilities and the elderly.


Subject and purpose of work: The article presents the concept of smart villages formulated in EU documents. Its purpose is to characterize the concept of smart villages - its assumptions, possibilities and implementation limitations.

Materials and methods: Literature studies and the analysis of documents.

Results: A comparative analysis of the smart villages and smart city concept was performed. The theoretical foundations and the determinants of its implementation were discussed.

Conclusions: The concept of smart villages provides an answer to the search for ways of implementing the concept of sustainable development. The concept is in the initial phase of its formulation and application. It is intended to strengthen the territorial capital of the countryside, while social and technological innovations are a tool for its implementation. Among the barriers to implementing this concept the following ones have to be mentioned: low openness of the rural community to change, low innovation capacity and low level of social capital, low capacity of the local markets, spatial distance, poorly developed transport and communication network.


Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the analysis is the concept of rural development in the European Union countries and its connection with the evolution of the common agricultural policy and the transformation of the cohesion policy. The aim of the study is to discover and assess the scale and method of supporting the rural development in the European Union countries through common agricultural policy and to present the underlying theoretical-cognitive and political-practical premises for shaping rural development strategies.

Materials and methods: The official documents and subject literature are submitted for critical analysis and evaluation by authors.

Results: This paper presents methods of defining and classifying rural areas and rural development through common agricultural policy and cohesion policy. It specifically outlines the concepts of multi-functional and intelligent development linked to the Europe 2020 strategy and the Cork political declarations. The new concept of smart villages and rural-urban partnership is also presented.

Conclusion: The processes of rural policy separation and the need for creating national methods of the coordination of community policies and the use of European funds are indicated.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the paper is to identify non-economic factors influencing employment in non-governmental organizations in the Subcarpathian Province.

Materials and methods: Surveys were conducted in a group of 30 people managing non-governmental organizations.

Results: In the Subcarpathian Province, the factors not connected to economy that encourage involvement in the work of non-governmental organisations include education, marital status, labour market activity, gender, religiousness, and moral authority associated with charitable activities. The factors such as age, personal experience of difficult life situations, or observing charity activities done by family members and friends have an insignificant effect on the involvement in the work of nongovernmental entities.

Conclusions: The activities of state institutions of social policy whose goal is to increase the participation of citizens in the third sector entities should aim to give them an opportunity of obtaining the highest level of education possible, stable employment in the labour market, as well as creating conditions for families to function properly. Moreover, public institutions should conduct social campaigns to show citizens that working in the third sector enriches their social and personal life.


Subject and purpose of work: The article analyses the influence of optional instruments applied in Poland as part of the first pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy on the average support provided to farms in individual provinces.

Materials and methods: The study was based on data from the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture as well as quantitative and analytical methods, especially simulations and comparative variant analysis.

Results: The optional instruments applied in Poland increased the average support provided to farms in central and eastern Poland. The average amount of support paid per farm would have been bigger in northern, western and southern provinces if optional instruments had not been implemented. Primarily, the introduction of both redistributive payment and production-related support (all forms of this support taken together) resulted in a decrease in the average aid per holding in the same group of provinces and at the same time an increase in this size in other provinces (compared to the situation in which the amounts for financing these instruments would be distributed under the single area payment).

Conclusions: The analysis of the influence of redistributive payment and coupled support on the average amount of financial aid per farm in individual provinces shows that the consequences of using these instruments were very similar to each other in their effect on the variable under study.


Subject and purpose of work: The article compares cleaning services markets in Warsaw and Moscow. The productivity of work is the subject of the research, but not in the traditional neoclassical interpretation, but within the institutional economy. The aim of the article is to show new ways of analyzing work productivity using institutional methodology.

Materials and methods: The article uses a conventional method, which is a combination of institutional and neoclassical methodology. It covers sociological research tools and statistical methods of data processing used for quantitative analysis as part of the institutional approach.

Results: Similar parameters of human capital indicators were obtained in the employees of both markets. The indicators of opportunism in the representatives of the employees of the Moscow market are much higher, which significantly reduces the quantitative values of the institutional work productivity in Eastern markets.

Conclusions: In order to increase institutional work productivity in Eastern European markets (Russia) and to reduce opportunistic behavior of transaction participants, it is necessary to modernize institutional environment in these countries.


Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this paper is Measure 121 of the 2007-2013 RDP, called Modernisation of agricultural holdings. The objective of the study was to present the diversification of regional absorption of aid funds used under this measure and to assess the correlation between the scale of the use of these funds and the level of labor productivity in agriculture.

Materials and methods: On the basis of the GUS data, the regional differentiation of the absorption of aid funds from the analyzed measure and labor productivity in agriculture were assessed. The relation between these categories was determined based on Pearson’s linear correlation index.

Results and conclusions: A strong regional diversification of labor productivity in agriculture and the level of utilization of European Union funds directed at modernization of agricultural holdings was observed. There is a relation between the scale of the utilization of funds under Measure 121 of the RDP and the efficiency of labor factor. It can therefore be assumed that the form of support investigated is a significant stimulus for the increase in the level of work efficiency.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of this research was to determine changes in the population of native animal breeds and to indicate the importance of subsidies under agri-environmental programs. The study concerned the years 1999-2017.

Materials and methods: The research was based on the documentation of the National Research Institute of Animal Production (PIB). An assessment of the population size of native animal breeds was carried out depending on the amount of subsidies from the national subsidy up to 2004 and from agri-environmental programs since 2005.

Results: Since the integration of Poland with the European Union and the mobilization of funds from agri-environmental programs, a successive increase in the number of farm animals covered by the protection program has been noted.

Conclusions: This investigation demonstrated a considerable, but not exclusive dependence of the dynamics of the growth of the livestock population covered by the protection program on the amount of subsidies for breeders. The preservation of EU subsidies through agri-environmental programs in the years to come is the basis for maintaining the upward trend in the abundance of native livestock populations. Also, a greater increase in the number of animals than in the number of new beneficiaries using agri-environmental programs was observed, and this is a situation conducive to breeding work. National surveys show that native breeds are a source of obtaining products with pro-health, regional and traditional properties, for which the demand is growing, and which can also help to protect the biodiversity of farm animals.


Subject and purpose of work: The goal of the article is to characterize the “slow city” model, its assumptions, conditions and effects of its implementation in Polish conditions. It also aims to present intelligent solutions in using own resources of small cities.

Materials and methods: The article was based on the study and synthesis of Polish and foreign literature and a review of strategic documents of Polish cities belonging to Cittaslow.

Results: The article fills the existing gap in the area of contemporary strategies for the development of small towns. It describes the “slow city” model, on the basis of which small cities belonging to the Cittaslow city network are developing. Intelligent solutions in the use of endogenous own resources of small cities are also presented.

Conclusions: The analysis carried out made it possible to state that the “slow city” model is useful in the development of small towns. It guarantees optimal and intelligent use of endogenous resources of a small town. However, the review of the strategic documents of the cities of “slow city” shows that these cities affect, like most small cities, negative socio-economic phenomena.


Subject and purpose of work: The article explores the issue of protected areas in the Podlaskie Province with particular reference to Natura 2000 areas. Its purpose is to investigate the familiarity of those areas as well as the perception of their attractiveness among the inhabitants of the Podlaskie Province.

Materials and methods: Surveys conducted in the study involved 275 adult inhabitants of the Podlaskie Province. The selection of the research sample was accidental.

Results: The meaning of the Natura 2000 concept was widely known among the respondents. These areas were considered to be attractive to tourists and quite often visited by the respondents. The most popular were the Bialowieza, Augustow and Knyszyn Forests. Hiking, cycling and canoeing were held most often in those areas

Conclusions: Natura 2000 areas in the Podlasie Province constitute a valuable and popular tourist destination. What they need is proper tourism organization so as to give visitors an opportunity to get acquainted with their most important values, as well as ensure sustainable tourism and area protection.