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Canyons are among the most interesting geosites created by the erosive activity of the rivers, processes of weathering and erosion or tectonic activity and are distinguished for the aesthetic beauty of the shapes, the labyrinths of the valleys, the steepness of the slopes, the greatness of vertical walls, waterfalls, caves, etc., bearing high scientific, educational and touristic values. Albania has a considerable number of canyons due to the presence of a rich river network flowing through the variety of geological formations and tectonic faults. Outstanding are the wellformed canyons in limestone rocks with almost vertical walls such as Gradec canyon in Çorovoda, Lëngarica canyon in Përmet, Grunas canyon in Theth, etc. The only canyons which are formed on magmatic rocks are the canyons of Devoll. For their values, the most interesting canyons are included in the list of nature monuments as geomonuments. The most magnificent and frequented canyons for tourism in Albania are the Osum canyons, Gradec canyon, Lëngarica canyon and Nivica canyon. These distant impressing landforms, once forgotten and unexplored, are now attracting the attention of many tourists either for admiring their natural scenery, hiking and rafting or for curative tourism. However, despite their values the canyons are not enough known due to lack of information or poor promotion. Filling this gap has served this study where the geotouristic potential of the canyons is evaluated according to four criteria of such as accessibility, state of preservation, scientific value and education value (Solarska and Jary, 2010). The database of the canyons is organized in an inventory card which contains general and specific data of each geosite. The final product of this project will be a website that will inform the public and promote the values of the canyons of Albania.


Subject and purpose of work: Urban transport is a key element of the functioning of urban agglomerations around the world. As it is of strategic importance, the needs of its users have to be diagnosed. Due to the fact that students are the most numerous social group using public transport, particular attention should be paid to students as the real creators of the needs of urban transport. The paper aims to diagnose the challenges in urban transport shaped by the process of studentification based on the case study of Toruń.

Materials and methods: The multi-stage research approach was adopted, among others a survey among students. The choice of the research area was determined by the fact that Toruń is one of the largest academic centres in Poland.

Results: Toruń is experiencing the effects of the studentification process in different dimensions, including the spatial and transport facets.

Conclusions: The majority of students use public transport, daily or several times a week. The most preferred means of transport is the tram owing to its relative speed and punctuality.


Subject and purpose of work: This article identifies changes in the economic use of the river valley area of the Krzna, which occurred as a consequence of the regulation of its bed from the Klukówka estuary to the estuary of the Krzna to the Bug.

Materials and methods: The analysis was carried out on the basis of cartographic maps and aerial photographs, as well as statistical analyses for the period 1931-2015.

Results: The study confirmed the changes in the economic use of the valley of the Krzna River for the agricultural exploitation of the area and increasing crop yields. The biggest changes encompassed wetlands and swamps, mainly in favour of grasslands, whose area increased by 566%, to 2475.7 ha.

Conclusions: The regulatory work carried out resulted in an increase in arable land, forests and areas for development, as well as in the reduction of water surface area from 251.94 ha in 1931 to 57.28 ha in 2015.


Geological and scenic values of locations are the non-living curiosities that can be preserved and popularized a lot easier using the institutional background of geotourism, such as geoparks. UNESCO Global Geoparks Network is responsible for protecting and fostering natural, scenic and cultural values and especially geosites that are the exciting visible physical elements. Our goal was to quantify the geotourism potential around Csopak, a scenic village in the Balaton Uplands giving home for the headquarter of the Bakony-Balaton UNESCO Global Geopark. After designating 216 potential geosites using topographic and geological maps, we applied two assessment models: the Geosite Assessment Model (GAM) and the Modified Geosite Assessment Model (M-GAM). GAM has been applied with good results in Hungary on different areas, but M-GAM has not been used before. As M-GAM involves tourists into the process counting with their opinion, it may give a more realistic view of the geosites. The two methods produced different but comparable final values of geotourism potential counted from the Main Value and Additional Value scores. We discovered that the proportion of the difference of these values carries major information. The ratio of ΔAV/ΔMV used as linear functions and depicted on diagrams can derive which values are more important for the visitors. From this result we can draw conclusions about the future development trends: scientific or infrastructural values should be more effectively fostered. Using our results, geosites can be handled and developed as visitors expect it.


Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the study was to compare the behavior of companies located in the areas of nature value and in their proximity with companies located in urbanized areas in the Lublin Region in terms of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Materials and methods: The study was conducted by means of the diagnostic survey method, using direct interviews.

Results and conclusions: Companies located in valuable natural or close to natural areas tend to undertake ecological and environmental investments (27.68%), care for the common good (54.46%), and treat employees well (54.46%) as compared with the companies located in urban areas (10.72%, 25.89% and 25.89%, respectively). Sensitivity to nature is primarily the result of the company’s direct contact with nature, the recognition of the importance of protecting it, as well as of good treatment of employees, that is it results mainly from the combination of business and personal relationships with employees. Firms located in urban areas are much more likely to support charitable donations (22.33%), which is a result of higher returns by these companies and more frequent requests for financial assistance. Further research in this regard should concern factors that make the entrepreneurs more willing to implement CSRs in their companies.


Subject and purpose of work: The study systematizes concepts and terms related to country branding such as nation branding, state branding, place branding, destination branding, location branding, territory branding, and region branding as well as exploring the similarities and differences among these expressions.

Materials and methods: First of all, the study reviews relevant literature. In this context it also analyzes the most relevant country case study articles with titles that may include country branding or related terms in many forms.

Results: At the end of the study, a summary table systematizing the terminology of the topic is included, which is a novel approach to the subject. The practical significance of the study becomes clear if organizations involved in the development of country brands consider the abovementioned theoretical framework while developing their own strategies.

Conclusions: As a result of the systematization, country branding will be more consciously used in the subchapters of strategic materials discussing how to increase country competitiveness.


Subject and purpose of work: The reason for choosing the subject and undertaking the studies were information gaps regarding the behaviour of young consumers in the area of activities related to enviroment.

Materials and methods: The study employed purposeful sampling with regards to the participants’ field of study (programmes with environmental education content) and the year of education, as well as stratified sampling according to the structure of the population and its division into groups based on specified features. The technique of auditorium questionnaire was used.

Results: The analysis showed that the students are characterised by a high level of ecological awareness and a sense of responsibility for it, and that is they are informed and pragmatic consumers. As involved and ecological consumers, they behave in a pro-ecological way and create desirable patterns of consumer behaviour.

Conclusions: It was found that the students have a sense of responsibility for the surrounding environment. Convinced about their individual influence, they create desirable patterns of proecological behaviour.


This paper makes the first attempt to measure economic disengagement in state-society relations on a regional level, using the case of Russia. An original composite index was calculated based on a number of indicators measuring different spheres of contact between the state and society. The study examines regional diversity in intensity of economic disengagement in state-society relations in Russia. It also attempts to identify determinants of economic disengagement on a regional level. Seeking to identify regional level predictors of the intensity of disengagement, the study focuses on the specificity of the Russian space – its federal structure based on a combination of territorial and ethnic principles. The results show that economic disengagement is least intense in regions belonging to the Russian Far North, which points to the role of physical-geographical factors and path dependence. They also reveal that residents of ethnically-defined regions tend to be less economically disengaged than residents of oblasts and krays. Moreover, the share of ethnic Russians is positively related to economic disengagement in the former regions, while it is not significant in the latter. These findings potentially point to differences between ethnic Russians and members of titular groups in terms of their intensity of interaction with the state in the economic sphere.


The Erasmus + Project Initiative began for the first time in 2014, but this was not the first time that the Erasmus project strategy came into being. This publication aims to understand its origins and the reasoning behind this particular initiative. It analyses the fundamental steps taken towards the creation of the Erasmus + Project Strategy and how it has helped shape a European Identity.


The economy of Azerbaijan has been moving forward towards “diversification” for many years and has not been focusing on the petrol sector anymore, but on a variety of fields, education above the others. Azeri education is deeply rooted in sport and health policies, and it finds expression in various sports events promoted by the Government. The history of juvenile politics dates back to 1994, thanks to the authoritative promotional effort of the national leader Gaydar Aliyev. Azeri young people between 14 and 29 are regularly involved in all these events, actively participating in conferences and international scientific research projects. Azerbaijan aims above all at improving the knowledge of the English language among pupils, university students, and leading scientists. Azeri school is a formative and educational laboratory where events promoted by the Ministry of Education are often experimented.

Since 2016 Azerbaijan has been focusing on making the Azeri society online-oriented, focusing on immediacy and material, effort, and time-saving. Education is firmly based on the lifelong learning approach, that is fundamental for today’s personal and professional fulfilment. Human beings create their deep inner reality by educating themselves and the others and, in order to feed their souls, they often resort to the literary world, which is full of formative and educational elements. This is the reason to start a detailed reflection on the work of a famous Azeri poet: Mirza Shafi Vaseh (1794-1852). His poems deal with the human being’s search for love, reflection, wisdom and ‘formative’ beauty.