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Abstract

The development gap between the “Old” and “New” member countries of the European Union is an important problem challenging the efficiency and strength of the European single market. In this regard, a subsequent question arises: which actions in the policy making must be undertaken, by both national and supranational authorities, to stimulate cohesion in the EU and which directions should be followed? The present paper tries to answer this question considering the perspective of the Eastern European nations and their economic development premises analysing the aspects of governmental participation in the economy and the influence of entrepreneurship upon long run competitiveness. The research results explicitly underline that entrepreneurship in the Eastern European nations is a determinative driver of long-term economic competitiveness due to its favourable impact upon the formation of human capital, enhancement of innovation potential and overall intellectual resources of nations. The effects of governmental participation in the economy upon the economic growth premises are heterogeneous including on the formation of physical and intellectual capital. Consequently, it was reached the conclusion that the Eastern European Nations should prioritise entrepreneurship since it is capable of boosting human capital creation and, at the same time, they should improve the institutional quality to minimise the factors undermining the business including corruption and red-tape, etc. In such a way, the Eastern European countries can overcome, in the long run, the development gap with the Western EU states and raise their economic potential.

Abstract

This research analyzes cause-related marketing (CrM) from the perspective of companies. The study aims to achieve a better understanding about what managers think about CrM by analyzing the level of acceptance and usage of this marketing tool, based on the UTAUT model. Using in-depth interviews as research method, we conclude that managers see the benefit of company partaken in initiatives as such, but not necessarily CrM. The reasons why managers choose to participate in Cause-related Marketing initiatives originate from the mix obtained through improving the firm by doing something considered socially positive. CrM was well evaluated by the participants and considered well positioned in terms of acceptance and usage, based on four factors: performance and effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions. Interviewees expressed excitement towards CrM and believe in it as a powerful tool to improve the firms’ image and consumers feeling towards it. While the literature uses several concepts (Corporate Social Responsibility or Social Marketing), the interviewees emphasize genuine caring and showing interest, time and funds to support consumers social concerns.

Abstract

The aim of the work was to analyse the external costs for agriculture and agri-food industry related to the possible launch of lignite deposits in Wielkopolska, that is, on the Ościsłowo, Dęby Szlacheckie and Oczkowice deposits. The duration of the mine’s impact on the environment includes the period of drainage of the deposit, its exploitation and the time necessary for the reconstruction of water relations around the open pit. The level of losses in agricultural production was estimated based on the production results achieved by agriculture threatened by the occurrence of external costs based on the Central Statistical Office (CSO) data. The studies adopted two variants of the impact of open pitches on agriculture, including: the area of the estimated depression hopper, that is, the area in which the water table lowered by at least one meter and the entire impact area of the outcrop. In total, the external costs in agricultural production and processing, which may arise as a result of the launch of extraction from the three analysed deposits, were estimated at PLN 7.7–32.3 bn, losses in non-produced agricultural production at PLN 31.8–113.0 bn, while when the value of lignite is PLN 83.7–111.6 bn. Such high costs mean that the opening of new lignite deposits in Wielkopolska raises economic doubts. This also applies to each deposit separately.

Abstract

The main goal of our paper is to determine the existence of a link between government (military) expenditures and the shadow economy in the Central and Eastern European countries, which are the members of the European Union. The empirical investigation is conducted for the years 2003–2015. We show that there is a high statistically significant positive dependence between the size of the shadow economy and military expenditures in the Baltic States. Our conclusion is that higher military expenditures indeed lead to a larger shadow economy and this result is robust to different model specifications. In order to demonstrate the importance of our results, we undertook a simulation, where we calculated how much the size of the shadow economy would increase if the size of military expenditure as a percentage of GDP were to double. For example, in the Czech Republic, such an expansion would have led to an increase in the size of the shadow economy from 11.50% to 12.96%, and in Estonia, from 18.34% to 22.72% in 2012.

Abstract

Section K of the services sector includes entities conducting financial and insurance activities and, among others, banks. Fluctuations in the whole economy and its individual sectors’ situation are interrelated; hence, one may also expect similarities of cyclical fluctuations in the banking sector and in the entire financial sector. The analyses in the article concern the connections between the cyclical fluctuations on the banking services market and in the entire K section of the services sector, grouping entities conducting financial and insurance activities in Poland. The analyses proved that changes in the economic situation appear earlier in the banking sector than in section K of the services sector. The time range of analyses covered the period from the first quarter of 2003 to the first quarter of 2018. Conclusions on relationships were formulated on the basis of cross-correlation analysis and the analysis of the turning points in the time series of variables describing the cyclical fluctuations in the banking market and in the K section of the services sector.

Abstract

We introduce a pro-cyclical endogenous utilization rate of physical capital stock into a real business cycle model augmented with a government sector in detail. We calibrate the model to Bulgarian data for the period following the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999–2016). We investigate the quantitative importance of the endogenous depreciation rate and the capital utilization mechanism working through the use of energy for cyclical fluctuations in Bulgaria. In particular, a positive shock to energy prices in the model works like a negative technological shock. Allowing for variations in factor utilization and the presence of energy as a factor of production improves the model performance against data, and in addition this extended setup dominates the standard RBC model framework with constant depreciation and a fixed utilization rate of physical capital (e.g., Vasilev (2009)).

Abstract

Prescribed levels of acceptable tax risk are increasingly used to articulate degrees of corporate tax responsibility, but the theoretical basis for doing so is not well established. This article (i) develops a theory of the relationship between tax risk and tax responsibility and (ii) shows that acceptable levels of tax risk could be used as a meaningful metric for these purposes, provided that the filing positions a n ticipated from proposed planning are reviewed against the prescribed level of acceptable risk without taking into account any mitigation of the risk factors that are introduced by the planning. Further, the article reviews the evolving tax risk policies of 20 large European companies, showing that while some progress is being made towards meaningful discourse, even the companies with the most well-developed policies are still making their claims in such a way as to conflate socially responsible tax behavior with diligence in implementing antisocial tax behavior.

Abstract

The article analyzes whether the investment in a private equity fund may create a permanent establishment (PE) for foreign investors. The analysis is divided into two main parts, as the question of creating a PE for the foreign investors is considered with respect to both the main PE rule and the agency PE rule. The amendments to the PE definition prescribed in the OECD/G20 BEPS report on Action 7, and incorporated into the 2017 version of the OECD Model with Commentary, are taken into consideration. It is concluded that the final outcome depends on the specific setup of the private equity fund at hand and that some degree of uncertainty may often remain. Moreover, the recent amendments to the PE definition do not appear to have reduced this uncertainty—rather the contrary.

Abstract

To finance public expenditure a government needs to raise revenue, which mainly comes from taxes and borrowings. During a financial crisis, however, financing of budget deficit is particularly difficult because of a rise in debt servicing costs that crowd out other expenses and raise the concern for government solvency. In extreme cases, governments are constrained to tax, as borrowing opportunities are strictly limited or unavailable. Still, governments can choose from tax menu options (income and consumption taxes), given the flexibility of the tax mix. This article presents a long-term dynamic model of fiscal solvency that shows the equilibrium the revenue maximising government can obtain with reasonable tax rates when capital income can be shifted and there are constraints on the consumption tax. Specifically, the solution predicts a positive level of bonds in the long-term equilibrium and the tax rates dependent positively on the abundance of the tax bases.

Abstract

The study raised the question of knowledge generation, in attempt to answer this question an economic model was introduced, namely, aggregate demand and aggregate supply. The final target equations can be solved by general rule (deterministic) of solving quadratic equations. The study use analytical geometry and matrix algebra tools to solve the model beside testing their stability characteristics. If we reach unique value to the price equilibrium level then income equilibrium level the maximum potency of the economy can determined. Accordingly the rest of model values would be solved spontaneously. The essential derived result is the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variable can be redefined into accommodated and accommodator one. The long run growth rate of price and income which equal to the equilibrium combat with exogenous theory of growth which seeking stable and sustainable growth. Other results center around how to view the debate of different economic schools from the shape of aggregate demand and aggregate supply, moreover the theoretical and practical test of model give great push to the suggested approach in answering the questions raised concerning the knowledge generation. If the model succeed in exceeding the theoretical and practical tests our understanding to the phenomena functioning will be broaden and enhanced, hence the model capability can be enlarged to interpret phenomena in fields other than economic, typically the suggested approach “top to bottom” may contribute positively to the process of knowledge generation in addition to the modification of value system extraction. Finally the study suggested a protocol scenario in how to apply the derived model by introducing different steps to the application.