The article includes analysis of expert system application possibilities in the environment of production processes control. Such concepts as artificial intelligence, expert system, intellectual factor, state space were used. The object of the research consisted of the mechanism of controlling an enterprise (manager). These mechanisms were analysed from the point of view of state space. The graph method was used to visualize information presentation. Analysis of control processes of an enterprise was carried out by determination of their state space. The concept of state space itself is completed with numerous measurement values (parameters) under influence of which the process of task solution takes place. Moreover, the concept of static and dynamic elements of state space of the control system is applied. It was shown that dynamic elements enable the quality presentation of space, which without including other restrictions leads to extension of its impact, which confirms that a given system has an intelligent factor.
Comparative analyses in the national scale were carried out in 300 individual farms from Małopolskie and Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship in order to search for relations between the production intensity level, work performance and land efficiency and factors which shape them. The analyses concerned the use of Bayesian modelling algorithms for forecasting development of various economic and agricultural indicators which decide on the intensity and competitiveness of agriculture. The paper constitutes the second stage of research, which was preceded with previous preparation of data for modelling with the use of an exploratory overview of available data and TwoStep Cluster Analysis (Grotkiewicz et al., 2016). Based on the analyses, which were carried out, networks were built which present the relations between the analyzed variables, and conditional similarities were verified.
Dairy cows production plays a significant role in development of Podkarpackie Voivodeship. Progress in this production branch may depend on the dairy production support which is given after relevant types of actions are undertaken. The objective of the research was to determine changes in the level of welfare of production animals, evaluation of practice in dairy cows breeding in the province of Ropczyce and Sędziszów. Breeding documentation and control protocols of the Coordinated Veterinary Inspection Program were applied pursuant to the resolution (1) of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 28 June 2010 on minimal conditions of maintaining farm animal species. 10 production herds of dairy cows (n-240) and heifers (n=101) which produce ≥ 10200 kilo of milk per lactation were used to achieve this objective. Dairy production was observed during individual visits in farms. Surveys were carried out with farm employees with the use of properly prepared veterinary control protocols of the Coordinated Veterinary Inspection Program. Control results were obtained based on the respondents' opinion from controlling institutions, such as: The Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture, Regional Veterinary Office and similar certified bodies.
A proposal of a mathematical method of modelling of the lemon shape with Bézier's curves was presented. Lisbon, Verna, Genoa lemon cultivars were selected for verification of the modelling method. The lemon contour, which is its meridian, was described with three smoothly combined Bézier's curves. Pictures taken in 10 locations changing every 36o were the basis for description of lemon contours. Bézier's curves, which approximate meridians located on the surface of lemons, are their 3D models. The presented method may be applied for mathematical modelling of the lemon shape.
The objective of the research was to determine the impact of the friction force between the cylinder wall and soil on the soil compaction resistance in relation to the sample height and diameter of the compaction plate. Samples with the diameter of (D) 100 mm and heights (H) of 30, 50 or 100 mm made of of soil material collected from subsoil of the selected plastic soils were used. The soil material wasidentified by the following properties: the granulation type, density of the solid phase, humus and calcium carbonate content, reaction, plastic and liquid limit. Properties of the samples were described with moisture, dry density of solid particles, porosity of aeration, plastic degree and saturation. The samples were loaded with plates of varied diameters (dA: 20; 30; 50; 70; 80; 90 and 98 mm) measuring at the same time forces on the main plate (FA) and the bottom one (FB) with the fixed diameter (dB=98 mm). The registered relationships between the forces FA and FB and plate sinkage (samples deformation) were used for determination of the impact of external friction forces (between the cylinder wall and soil) on the compression resistance of soils. It was found out that the participation of the friction force in relation to the height of samples and plate diameter varied from 0 to ca. 70%. It was proved that one may avoid the impact of the plate diameter dA on the measurement of force FA, when the relation dA/D, for samples with the heights of H30 and H50, is respectively within 0.5 ≤ dA/D < 0.8 and 0.5 ≤ dA/D < 0.7.
The paper presents analysis of the impact of irrigation dose on the winter wheat Bystra yield, which is recommended for cultivation in Poland. It is a low-growing high-yield wheat cultivar. A reel sprinkler equipped with a computer for control of parameters of its operation, which was supplied with pond water was used for irrigation. Test were carried out on five fields, where four irrigation doses were used: 15, 20, 25, 30 mm. A change of weather during research in May and June caused the need to irrigate a field four times. During research, the size of the irrigation dose was measured with rain gauges on each of the investigated fields in five measurement points. One of the fields was a control field, which was not irrigated. The investigated wheat was characterized during harvesting. Research proved that the size of the irrigation dose influences the wheat yield. The grain yield between a control field and a field with the highest irrigation dose increased by twofold. Moreover, analysis of costs incurred during sprinkling were analysed.
A comparative analysis of milk production in Poland and Belarus was carried out. The basic tendencies of modern development of the dairy industry and offered upcoming trends of innovative modernization of milk production processes were analyzed. On the basis of the analysis of trends in the global production of milk and new scientific knowledge on the biosynthesis of milk, a conceptual approach to the design of equipment for machine milking, is provided, considered the relationship of technical and physiological parameters.
Photovoltaic systems are very efficient concerning proper utilization of solar radiation. However, the nanotechnology solution can replace the photovoltaic by the use of new production technology to lower the price of solar cells to one tenth. Sun provides nearly unlimited energy resource, but existing solar energy harvesting technologies are quite expensive and cannot compete with fossil fuels. The central part of Poland, which represents about 50 percent of the area, gives solar radiation at the level of 1000 kWh·m−2/year. Other new developments, which can help improve existing efficiency of solar systems are: diatoms utilization, artificial photosynthesis, nanoleaves and rotation solar towers.
The purpose of the research is to improve the processes of conservation indicators of quality petroleum products (POL). As a hypothesis, it was assumed that the quality of fuel depends on its main quality parameters that most strongly vary during storage and transportation. The methods were applied which are used at the theoretical level of research, such as abstraction, deduction, analysis and synthesis, etc. We presented the main problems of pollution of oil. Moreover, we provided indicators of physical and chemical properties of diesel fuel and motor oil, which characterize their performance and the list of used additives. We analysed the scientific and patent work. We provided solutions to the problem. Correct storage and use of fuel will help maintain its quality parameters and ensure safety and durability of machinery.
The paper presents the impact of the applied technologies on milk yield of cows in dairy farms. The scope of the research covered technical equipment used in the dairy cattle breeding and milking in 50 farms on the area of Grajewo Province in Podlaskie Voivodeship. The studies were carried out in 2016 with the diagnostic survey method based on the interview questionnaire developed for this purpose. The studies proved that 68% of the respondents from Grajewo Province maintain cattle in a stanchion-tide stable system and the remaining 32% in a free stall system. The group (48%) of the surveyed farmers maintain animals on a deep litter and 34% of them use shallow litter. In case of 18% of the investigated farms, animals are maintained on a slatted floor. In case of 68% of the investigated farms their owners feed cattle in the TMR system while the remaining 32% do it traditionally. The analysed farms in milk production use mainly pipeline milking machines (38%) and bucket milking machines (36%). 22% of the investigated farms have a milking parlour and 4% own a milking robot. A statistical analysis proved a significant correlation between the maintenance system of animals, number of lairs in a cow shed, TMR feeding of cattle, manner of obtaining milk and milk yield of cows.