Corrosion flaws in pipelines can caused severe financial losses and also can be dangerous for people. One of the most frequently damaged parts are dissimilar pipe welds. We would like to understand how corrosion process reacts on corrosion product removal. Outputs from experiment will be used for production of test specimens. For testing we chose standard dissimilar weldment used in Czech power plants. It is joint with 08Ch18N10T and 22K (GOST) steel. Joint is cut to 24 same specimens. There are exposed to flowing water solution of 5% NaCl. Half of the specimens are regularly mechanically cleaned. The joint is metallographically observed and parts with and without corrosion products are compared. Water salt solution increased pH from 7,25 to 7,86 during 31 days test and conductivity varies around 74 mS cm−1. Metallographic observation indicates that corrosion under corrosion products layer is locally speed up and causes pitting corrosion. Cleaned specimens indicate plane corrosion with lower depth. These results indicate that slag in pipeline could locally speed up corrosion depth penetration. On the other hand, solutions with abrasive particles (which can wipe out the corrosion product) will probably facilitate plane corrosion damage on pipeline walls. This test brings us another knowledge, how to simulate realistic corrosion damage for production of NDT qualification test pieces.
The soil is a key component of natural ecosystems because environmental sustainability depends largely on a sustainable soil ecosystem. The objective of this study was to predict the impact of selected toxic compounds from dumpsite or contaminated soils on human health at the molecular level of biological processes. The in silico methods that were used include toxicokinetics and target gene prediction, molecular docking, and gene expressing network analysis. The result showed bisphenol A (BPA), 2,20-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), 2,20-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol (NP) and tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) as the active toxic compounds that can modulate biological system and are considered as potential cause of several diseases including cancer. The principal target genes include substance-P receptor (also known as Neurokinin 1 receptor), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor, human serotonin transporter; estrogen receptor alpha; and aryl hydrocarbon receptor. These genes implicated SUZ12, STAT3, and TRIM28 as the major transcription factors while mitogen-activated protein kinases and cyclin-dependent kinases were the major kinases from the protein-protein interaction. All the six toxicants investigated showed good free binding energies (ΔG) which were below - 5.0 kcal.mol−1. These toxic compounds showed ligand efficiency greater than 0.25 kcal.mol−1. HA and would possibly cause fatal damage on human health. The order of in silico predicted toxicity of these compounds were BPA > DDD = DDT > TCDD > NP > DEHP. Our results identified potential threats, which the selected toxicants can pose to public health. More importantly, it provides basis for investigation of super bugs (microorganisms) that can remediate these toxicants in our environment. Environmental monitoring and modern wastes management system should be implemented and enforced in the affected countries in order to safeguard the health of the citizenry.
Fermented meat products represent an important segment of our alimentation. Obtaining these products is based on beneficial microorganism activity. In the case of traditional food products, these are commercial starters or autochthonous microflora. Fermentation of raw materials is mainly done by sugar metabolization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In addition, these microorganisms can have other beneficial properties too such as probiotic properties, antimicrobial compound production abilities, etc.
In order to meet consumer demands, starter cultures are continuously developed to produce high-quality, healthy, and tasty products, thus contributing to guaranteeing microbiological safety and to improving one or more sensory characteristics, technological, nutritional, or health properties of the fermented products. The aim of our research is to determine the technological properties of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria originated from commercial fresh sausages in order to select and use them as potential starter cultures in the meat industry. In our work, we determined the relevant characteristics (such as salt tolerance, proteolytic activity, antimicrobial activity, and antibiotic resistance) of bacteria isolated from 16 fresh sausages. Based on our results, the studied bacterial isolates originated from sausages could be potentially used as autochthonous meat starter cultures.
Multiphase extraction (MPE) was applied as a developed, convenient and efficient method in separation of ephedrine from Pinellia ternata. Firstly, in order to increase the adsorption efficiency, bionic liquid-modified polymer was created. Comparing the effects of all sorbents under variables conditions, the highest amount of 5.8 mg/g can be adsorbed on dual imidazole ionic liquid modified polymer (Im-Im-Poly) in methanol/water (70:30, v/v) solution at 25°C within 30.0 min. Then the Im-Im-Poly was applied in MPE, after 7 times repetition of extraction, around 1.0 mg/g of ephedrine from Pinellia ternata was detected. After washing by water, ethanol and methanol, and elution by methanol/acetic acid (99.0:1.0, v/v), ephedrine was successfully separated.
Novel complexes of Ru (III), Cu (II) and Au (III) (2–4) were prepared using 6-phenyl-2-thioxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (HL, 1) adopting either electrochemical or traditional chemical methods. The electrochemical method is preferred in the synthesis of the complexes than the chemical one because it affords pure products with higher yields in shorter reaction time. The novel thiopyridine complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H, 19F-NMR, TGA and DTA measurements. The antimicrobial activity evaluation revealed that the complex bearing copper metal 3 has nearly the same activity as the reference drug ciprofloxacin. Anti-inflammatory activity evaluation showed that complex 4 containing gold displayed anti-inflammatory activity higher than the reference drug celecoxib upon using carrageenan rat hind paw edema method.
Freshly harvested pumpkin seed was processed into flour namely; raw (RPSF), fermented (FPSF), germinated (GPSF) and roasted (ROPSF). Various pumpkin seed flour obtained were investigated for nutritional properties using standard methods. Protein was higher in the fermented flour (35.85%) while the roasted flour (46.31%) possessed the highest fat content. Results obtained from processed pumpkin seed flour further revealed that glutamic acid (10.45-13.02 g/100g) and linoleic acid (134.72-419.70 µg/ml) were the most abundant amino acid and fatty acid, respectively. Processed pumpkin seed flour contained appreciable amount of minerals and demonstrated very good functional properties. It can be concluded that subjecting pumpkin seed to various processing methods enhanced its nutritional properties and may find application in food industry.
This research investigates the physical-chemical, sensorial and mechanical characteristics of starch-based edible films incorporating three types of bee hive products: honey, propolis and bee bread, in concentrations varying from 1% to 3%, reported to starch. The results indicates an increasing of films moisture, water activity, ash content and acidity, in the order: honey<propolis<bee bread, all values increasing with the increasing of hive products percentage into the control film; aw is remaining at very low values, under 0.4. Sensorial analysis indicated honey as the better suited for improving taste and flavour and bee bread for increasing colour intensity of the films; the sensorial characteristics are maintained during 30 days of films storage, in all cases. Compared with the control starch-based film (which is elastic, brittle and hard), the films containing 2% bee hive products are elasto-plastic and more resistant to penetration, the resistance increasing in the order: bee bread<propolis<honey.
Recombinant protein production in heterologous hosts often seems a simpler and more effective way than its production by natural producer. The secretion of recombinant protein in Escherichia coli has many advantages comparing to than in insect or mammalian cells. The important factor for high-level recombinant protein production is the sufficient amount of E. coli biomass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to optimize the composition of propagation medium resulting in the maximum biomass yield of recombinant E. coli as the part of fermentation strategy for neuraminidase (NA) production. Three independent variables including glucose, asparagine and phosphate concentrations, and four dependent variables, such as biomass yield, residual concentrations of glucose or asparagine and pH of the propagation medium after fermentation, were chosen to the optimization by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions for the maximum biomass yield expressed as dry cell weight (DCW) (16.57±0.55 g DCW.L−1) were as follows: glucose concentration of 39.37 mM, asparagine concentration of 62.68 mM and phosphate concentration of 14.80 mM. For this model, the predicted values for the responses are close to the experimental values. The yield of desired pET15b-neu plasmid from E. coli cells cultivated in optimized propagation medium was almost 23 % higher than in commonly used Luria-Bertani (LB) medium suggesting that asparagine may be involved in the induction of plasmid amplification.
Disability can cover various areas of people’s activities, but it is primarily associated with difficulties that relate to independent movement. The possibility of free movement is one of the basic human rights. People with disabilities who cannot get to work and take employment, despite a desire to do so, assimilate with the rest of society to a worse extent, do not have the means to support themselves and do not earn national income. From this point of view, programs and activities aimed at maximising mobility and access to various types of places for people with disabilities, including those in public space, are very important. These types of places include paid parking zones in cities. Their location in city centres provides access to most offices. Due to the fact that they are located in public space, municipalities and city authorities have an impact on their management and on establishing the principles of their functioning. A very important element of this management is determining the rules for providing parking spaces in paid parking zones, particularly with regard to the amount of parking fees for disabled people. The article provides an analysis of the management of the provision of disabled parking spaces in relation to paid parking zones in all voivodeship cities in Poland.
Broad research interest is observed over last decade, toward searching for a new natural antioxidants, which could be applied in food industry. Especially attractive seems to be those rich in polyphenols, such as cherry. Thus, presented study determine the effect of cherry extract (equivalent of 20 mg and 40 mg GAE kg−1) on physicochemical properties of ground pork frozen for 80 days. Samples were analyzed for color, color change, color attractiveness, myoglobin oxidation, fat oxidation, fatty acids profile, cooking loss, texture profile. The positive effect of cherry extract was observed for fat oxidation but cooking loss was higher in samples with extract addition. Color, color change, color attractiveness, myoglobin oxidation or fatty acids profile did not differ between groups.