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Open access

Katarzyna Wasilewska and Katarzyna Winnicka

Abstract

In recent years, there has been a tendency toward creating innovative, easy to use and patient-friendly drug delivery systems suitable for every consumer profile, which would ensure safety, stability and acceptability of a drug. One of the relatively novel and promising approaches is the manufacture of orodispersible films (ODFs), which is an upcoming area of interest in drug delivery. They are defined as polymer thin films that disintegrate in the oral cavity within seconds, without drinking water or chewing, and eliminate the risk of choking. Gaining special usefulness in therapies of children and the elderly, ODFs seem to fill the gap in the range of preparations available for these groups of patients. As no detailed monography of ODFs including testing methods and uniform requirements has been presented in any of the pharmacopoeias to date, the aim of this article is to give an overview of the applied testing methods, their modifications and innovative approaches related to ODF quality assessment.

Open access

F. Moravec, A. Chaudhary and H. S. Singh

Summary

A new nematode species, Heliconema monopteri n. sp. (Physalopteridae), is described from the stomach and intestine of the freshwater fish Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton) (Synbranchidae) in Bijnor district, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is mainly characterized by the lengths of spicules (468 – 510 µm and 186 – 225 µm), the postequatorial vulva without elevated lips, the presence of pseudolabial lateroterminal depressions and by the number and arrangement of caudal papillae. This is the first representative of the genus reported from a synbranchiform fish. Another new congeneric species, Heliconema pisodonophidis n. sp. is established based on a re-examination of nematodes previously reported as H. longissimum (Ortlepp, 1922) from Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton) (Ophichthidae) in Thailand; ovoviviparity in this species is a unique feature among all physalopterids. Heliconema hamiltonii Bilqees et Khanum, 1970 is designated as a species dubia and the nematodes previously reported as H. longissimum from Mastacembelus armatus (Lacépède) in India are considered to belong to H. kherai Gupta et Duggal, 1989. A key to species of Heliconema Travassos, 1919 is provided.

Open access

Hyun Ah Kim and Seung Jin Kim

Abstract

This study examined the heat storage and release characteristics of ZrC-imbedded woven fabrics by light emission and thermal manikin experiments. The surface temperature of the ZrC-imbedded fabric was higher than that of the regular PET fabric. Furthermore, the Clo values of both the total and torso of the ZrC-imbedded fabric by the thermal manikin experiment were higher than those of the regular PET fabric, which suggests that the heat release is caused by far infrared rays emitted from the ZrC particles imbedded in the yarns as they receive light. This was confirmed by the higher emissivity and emissive power of the ZrC-imbedded fabric. However, the tactile hand of the ZrC-imbedded fabric needs to be improved by adjusting the structural parameters of the fabric and finishing process factors.

Open access

Václav Šimůnek, Zdeněk Vacek, Stanislav Vacek, Ivo Králíček and Karel Vančura

Abstract

Long-term temporal development of beech stands in relation to climatic conditions is well documented by dendrochronological analyses. The study aims to identify and describe growth factors affecting natural European beech stands (Fagus sylvatica L.) on permanent research plots in the eastern Krkonoše Mountains, the Czech Republic. The paper focus on radial growth dynamics, frequency and cyclicity, and the effect of climatic factors on diameter increment of beech stands since 1850. The growth development of beech stands was significantly affected by air pollution load in 1977–1989, and increasingly frequent climate extremes in recent years (since 2010). Periodic increment events recurred in approximately 10–18 years’ periods. Stands on research plots responded differently to climatic factors, the main limiting factor being low temperatures during the growing season, frost damages and extreme droughts. The positive influence of temperatures on beech increments was recorded in winter, early spring, and especially in July and August of the current year. Conversely, precipitation in the previous year had higher impact on radial increment, with prevailing negative correlation. The plots were negatively affected by the decrease in sum of precipitation in February and March, but it was the temperature that influenced the beech increment most significantly. Dendrochronological analysis of close-to-nature beech stands provides valuable information on radial forest growth in response to changing climatic conditions.

Open access

M. R. Werneck, A. Mastrangelli, R. Velloso, P. Baldassin, H. Jerdy and E. C. Q. Carvalho

Summary

The present note describes the occurrence of Rhytidodoides intestinalis and Rhytidodoides similis (Digenea: Rhytidodidae) in the gallbladder of two juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas - Testu- dines, Cheloniidae) found on the coast of Brazil. Both were detected in gallbladder and intestine of green turtles: Rhytidodoides similis (United States, Panama, Costa Rica and Brazil) and R. intestinais (United States, Panama and Costa Rica). This note is the first report of R. intestinalis in Brazil and South-West Atlantic Ocean. Also the histological lesions caused by the parasites in one gallbladder are described.

Open access

Zeqir Hashani, Qenan Maxhuni, Rrahman Ferizi, Almir Abdurrahmani and Xhavit Mala

Abstract

Flora of the southern part of Kosovo has previously been studied in a limited way due to the difficult terrain and the fact that up to the 1990s it was a military area. In this paper we report Galanthus elwesii Hook for the first time from Kosovo. This species is found in different habitats, mainly in siliceous substrate or wet meadows of the Dragash Municipality, South Kosovo. This species was collected in the Vraça Mountains, near Restelica, (part of National Park ‘Sharri’) on the road leading to the border with Macedonia. The study area consists of territories belonging to the phytogeographic system Skardon-Pindik (Sharri-Pindi) and includes the mountain ranges of Sharri. This research comprises the presence, description, spread and mapping of the species.

Open access

Jun Wang, Yifan Wu, Jueyi Sui and Bryan Karney

Abstract

Ice jams in rivers often arise from the movement of frazil ice as cover-load under ice cover, a process which is conceptually similar to the movement of sediment as bed-load along a river bed. The formation and movement of an ice-accumulation wave is one facet of a larger class of cover-load movements. The movement of an ice-accumulation wave obviously plays a crucial role in the overall process of ice accumulation. In the present study, experiments under different flow and ice conditions help reveal the mechanics of formation and evolution of ice-accumulation waves. In particular, suitable criteria for formation of an ice-accumulation wave are investigated along with the resulting speed of wave propagation. The transport capacity of frazil ice under waved accumulation is modeled by comparing those of experiments collected in laboratories, and the resulting equation is shown to be in good agreement with measured experimental results.

Open access

Rudolf Navrátil, Yvonne Brodrechtová, Róbert Sedmák and Ján Tuček

Abstract

Scenarios modelling offers to forest management an option how to envision complex future associated with various natural, social, or economic uncertainties. The challenge is what modelling method to choose as many methodological approaches to scenario building exists. Morphological analysis is a basic modelling method for structuring and analysing a whole set of relationships existing in multi-dimensional, non-quantifiable, and complex topics. Especially, its application is relevant when abstract policy or market-driven challenges need to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrated the usefulness of the morphological analysis with an example case taken from forest management in Slovakia. The use of the method has enabled, from a number of uncertain futures, to identify three possible, plausible and consistent future scenarios of possible forest management direction in the regions of Podpoľanie and Kysuce. Additionally, the future scenario modelling as prognostic method of qualitative research supported by quantitative models or forestry DSS could introduce participation and more dimensions into forest management modelling. Thus, the future scenarios modelling offers new methodological possibilities to how to deal with increasing uncertainties associated with increasing demands for various ecosystem services or negative impacts of climate change, that forest management in Slovakia will face in the near future.

Open access

Mahsa Jahadi, Hossein Afzalimehr and Paweł M. Rowinski

Abstract

Investigation of the interactions between submerged vegetation patch and flow structure is of crucial importance for river engineering. Most of hydraulic models have been presented for fully developed flows over uniform vegetation in the laboratory conditions; however, the mentioned interactions are complex in river flows where the flow is not developed along small patch. This reveals a gap between developed and non-developed flow along the vegetation patch. This study was conducted in a gravel-bed river in the central Iran. The results reveal that the flow structure in evolving flow (non-developed flow) along the patch resembles that in shallow mixing layer. Accordingly, a shallow mixing layer model and modified equations are combined to quantify evolving area along the patch. The evolving shallow mixing layer equations for the flow along a non-uniform vegetation patch reach a reasonable agreement with field data. However, the spreading coefficient of this model less than one was reported in literature, 0.06 and 0.12. In addition, the flow immediately downstream the vegetation patch behaves similar to a jet and is parameterized by two conventional models, conventional logarithmic law and mixing layer theory. These models present a reasonable agreement with the measured velocity profiles immediately downstream the patch.

Open access

O. Košulič and Š. Mašová

Summary

Details about the record of a juvenile mermithid roundworm parasitizing the bark spider Caerostris sumatrana Strand, 1915 from Thailand are presented. The morphology and ecology of both organisms is discussed. Morphological features suggest this juvenile nematode belongs to the genus cf. Aranimermis. Due to the subadult stage of parasite, identification to species-level was not possible. This first report of a nematode infection in C. sumatrana with several recent findings from other studies significantly adds to the current inventory of mermithids parasitizing spiders. Moreover, our finding is among the first record of this host-parasite interaction from Southeast Asia.