Therapy with hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT) was first used in pediatrics in Russia in the 1920s (1927). At present, HBOT is used in children in similar indications as in adults, as well as in perinatal, neurologic and neuro-developmental conditions, even though there is only limited evidence of it offering any benefit for such conditions. The aim of this publication is to present current indications and risks of the use of HBOT in children.
When a man has mastered the ability to travel by sea, he began to wonder what is the depth clearance under the keel and how to measure the depth. Initially, only coastal shipping was practiced. Cargo ship sailing, fishery, underwater scientific research, recreational diving as well as resource exploration and operation of submarine cables and pipelines laying were developing dynamically in this part of the continental shelf. That is why accurate bathymetric information was of great importance to masters, scientists, fishermen, ship-owners and all seafarers.
Cartographic compilation of even a primitive nautical chart was a huge challenge. It was a painstaking process and required, first and foremost, a large amount of data, which was primarily obtained through not efficient measurements. As technology progresses, new techniques and methods of ocean exploration have developed. The technology, systems, devices and instruments of underwater exploration have gone through a long way of change, modernization and improvements, ultimately creating the potential for a bottom surface visualization as three-dimensional spatial models. A significant role has been played by multibeam echosounder which revolutionized the hydrographic surveys and proved to be efficient means of hydrographic and oceanographic surveys.
Gabriela Henrykowska, Andrzej Buczyński, Małgorzata Lewicka and Magdalena Zawadzka
During the last decades, there has been a rapid development in the research and use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), and modern medicine is increasingly taking advantage of its beneficial effects. The aim of the study was to check the level of knowledge of future doctors (medical students) on hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
The survey was conducted among 240 students of the medical faculty (3rd and 5th year of study) of the Military and Medical Faculty of the Medical University of Lodz. The author’s questionnaire with forced-choice questions was used as research tool.
The students’ knowledge of hyperbaric oxygen therapy was varied and in some cases was not dependent on the year of study. It was observed that students’ knowledge of the subject matter depends on the number of teaching hours allocated to it.
Zbigniew Dąbrowiecki, Małgorzata Dąbrowiecka, Romuald Olszański and Piotr Siermontowski
Pathogenic micro-organisms can easily transfer from the surface of a diver’s skin onto the surfaces of a protective suit. A long-term stay in a hyperbaric chamber during a saturation dive increases the risk of infection if in the chamber there is even a single carrier of disease-causing pathogens.
The conducted research has confirmed that the diving equipment located in Diving Centres is a place of many different bacteria and fungi, including pathogenic ones. The vast majority of microbes found on the surfaces of wetsuits, etc. are commensals (with some being opportunistic organisms). This fact allows us to realise that the surfaces of diving equipment are an excellent “transmission route” for various dermatoses and other diseases. In order to reduce the risk of infection the diving equipment used by various people should be subject to the process of decontamination. The authors recommend decontamination with the use of gaseous hydrogen peroxide which does not cause damage to equipment.
Dorota Niewiedział, Magdalena Kolańska, Zbigniew Dąbrowiecki, Mateusz Jerzemowski, Piotr Siermontowski, Zdzisław Kobos and Romuald Olszański
The aim of the article is to conduct a literature review in relation to the psychological aspects of diving. The acquired knowledge can currently be qualified as belonging to various branches of applied psychology, as well as underwater medicine, sports medicine, psychiatry and psychotherapy. The literature on this subject matter raises two main issues of the psychological perspective: the degree of psychological adaptation of an individual to the underwater environment, and the psychophysical condition of a man involved in a specific type of diving and the resulting skills/competences to perform underwater tasks. The article presents selected reports from around the world related to diving psychology resulting from the applied structure/classification of psychological theories, explaining various mechanisms of psychological functioning underwater. The paper presents studies from the perspective of psychodynamics, psychology of health/stress, psychology of individual differences and personality. The main conclusions indicate that in addition to the main problem of an optimal/lack of adaptation of humans to the underwater environment, there is insufficient psychological knowledge (including Polish reports) in the area of personality differences between various types of divers, their social functioning, mental health and psychoeducation with regard to underwater exposures.
Jerzy K. Garbacz, Jacek Cieściński, Jerzy Ciechalski, Ryszard Dąbkowski and Jolanta Cichowska
This paper presents an analysis of thermal and oxygen conditions of the Charzykowskie Lake in the years 2014-2016 in the period from May to August. The measurements were carried out once a month, at points representing three different basins in the lake, and the temperatures and oxygen content dissolved in the water were recorded every 1m from the surface to the bottom at the deepest point of each basin. The changes in temperatures and content of dissolved oxygen were analysed in each of the representative measurement points for particular parts of the lake. It has been shown that the deficit of oxygen dissolved in the bottom layers of the water starts occurring by the beginning of the summer stagnation period, whereas at its peak (August) the anaerobic zone includes hypolimnion and part of the metalimnion. The hypothesis that the thickness of the thermal layers varies within the lake basin was confirmed. It was also shown that the oxygen content curve at representative points, in all years of research, evolves to the form of a clinograde at the peak of summer stagnation, where the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreases with the depth.
Valentina Prevolnik Rupel, Renata Erker and Marko Divjak
The purpose of this study is to analyse and present the causes of the differences in crude utilization rate in cardiac implantation electronic devices, specifically pacemakers and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, across 5 European countries, with a specific emphasis on Slovenia.
Based on the results of the analysis of the uptake of cardiac implantation electronic devices across countries studied in MedtecHTA project, the targeted interviews were conducted to explain the factors that impact the differences and explain data in Slovenia.
The reasons for the differences in crude utilization rate across 5 European countries were multiple: the first group of differences refers to the coding system and linkages between coding and financing of health care. The second group of reasons can be qualitatively ascribed to the economic situation, financial situation in health care, and its impact on decision-making. The last reason is the non-existence of the golden rule for optimal crude utilisation rate.
It is evident that the differences in the uptake of cardiac implantation electronic devices among the countries are of organisational nature: they refer to the system of coding, the importance attached to correct coding practices, the link between coding and financing of health care as well as the availability of private clinics and private insurance. According to the interviews, the economic development of the country also impacts those differences, whereas the differences in clinical practice and guidelines are claimed not to play a role in the explanation of the differences.
Davorina Petek, Marija Petek-Ster and Ksenija Tusek-Bunc
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is measuring a patient’s experience of his health status and represents an outcome of medical interventions. Existing data proves that a healthy lifestyle is positively associated with HRQoL in all age groups. Patients with a high risk for cardiovascular disease typically led an unhealthy lifestyle combined with risk diseases. We aimed to analyse these characteristics and their reflection in HRQoL.
A cross-sectional study in 36 family practices, stratified by location and size. Each practice invited 30 high-risk patients from the register. Data were obtained from medical records and patient questionnaire. The EQ-5D questionnaire and the VAS scale were used for measuring the patient’s HRQoL as an independent variable.
871 patients (80.6% response rate) were included in the analysis. 60.0% had 3-4 uncontrolled risk factors for CVD. The average VAS scale was 63.2 (SD 19.4). The correlation of EQ-5D was found in the number of visits in the practice (r=-0.31, p<0.001), the socioeconomic status (r=-0.25, p=0.001), age (r=-0.27, p=0.001) and healthy diet (r=0.20, p=0.006). In a multivariate model, only physical activity among lifestyle characteristics was an independent predictor of HRQoL (p=0.001, t=3.3), along with the frequency of visits (p<0.001, t=-5.3) and age (p=0.025, t=-2.2).
This study has been performed on a specific group of patients, not being “really sick”, but having less optimal lifestyle in many cases. Encouragement to improve or keep healthy lifestyle, especially physical activity, is important, not only to lower the risk for CVD, but also to improve HRQoL.
Miha Zabret, Irena Hočevar Boltežar and Maja Šereg Bahar
The voice represents a basic working tool for carrying out certain occupations. Hoarseness, as a consequence of vocal fold lesions, presents an important cause of work-related absences for voice professionals.
Our study was designed as a retrospective cohort one. Data on gender, workplace, vocal load and exposure to risk factors for voice disorders of the patients who had surgery in the 2014-2015 period at the tertiary centre due to benign vocal fold lesions were collected from their clinical records. We compared professional voice users (PVU) to subjects with no vocal load at work (NPVU). The SPSS programme, version 22.0, was used for statistical analysis.
From 2014 to 2015, 103 PVU and 132 NPVU were surgically treated for benign vocal fold lesions. In comparison to the second group, loud speech use was reported significantly more often by PVU (40.8% vs. 14.4%), as was a fast speaking rate (22.3% vs. 9.8%) and additional vocal load outside of the workplace (23.3% vs. 12.9%). The time that had passed between the occurrence of the hoarseness and the surgical treatment did not differ between the groups. The majority of patients were satisfied with the outcome of the operation.
Nearly a half of the operated patients had a considerable vocal load at work. An ENT assessment prior to starting a job as well as priority phoniatric treatment of voice disorders for PVU would significantly reduce the costs of work absences and contribute to a speedier recovery and return to the workplace.
The aim of the study was to analyse the deviations of the body posture and to assess the occurrence of spine deformities. Additionally, Body Mass Index in school children was related to the trend in postural deformities for different age groups (5-8 years old, n=112; 9-11 years old, n=205; 12-14 years old, n=212) as part of the project “Spine Lab”, granted from the European Commission IPA founds, investigating the importance of public health issues.
Body posture was measured using Contemplas 3D software analyser, based on video image trajectory and BIA weight scale (Tanita BC 420). Overall, 17 variables were assessed, and differences were confirmed using MANOVA analysis.
The results showed that there is a significant difference between age groups for the measured variables (F=9.27; p<0.01; η2=0.26), suggesting a moderate difference across the age span.
The study results showed that there is a negative trend of increasing Body Mass Index within the first and youngest age group. The fact is that the trend of increasing deformity of the shoulder belt has been noted, often inclining towards the formation of milder forms of kyphotic posture. Other forms of deformity that are accentuated in the survey results are the negative trend of increasing pelvic rotation and pelvis rotation which inclines towards the formation of lordotic posture for all three age groups.