We present a case of paediatric nasal foreign body removal using a flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscope, which is used both as an endoscope for visualization and as a hook for the rapid and complete removal of the nasal foreign body (“Visual Hook“).
Klaus Vogt, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Mara Argale and Krista Kaulina
BACKGROUND. The measurement of the total nasal resistance by rhinomanometry is of special interest in the functional diagnosis of the nasopharynx and retropalatal space. It can be measured by posterior rhinomanometry or estimated by calculating the total resistance from measurements of both sides. Because the standard parameters of the classic rhinomanometry have to be considered as obsolete, Vertex Resistance and Effective Resistance and their logarithmic derivations have been introduced with 4-phase-rhinomanometry.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. In the first part, posterior and anterior rhinomanometry have been compared in a study of 32 volunteers. The disadvantages of posterior rhinomanometry have been apparent because of inconsistent statistic results. To compare both methods is useful in cooperative patients for the diagnosis of postnasal pathological alterations. By analyzing the rhinomanometric databases of 5 hospitals in 10,033 untreated patients and in 8,246 patients after decongestion, the total nasal resistance could be determined.
RESULTS. Because only the logarithmic values for effective and vertex resistances are correlated with the sensing of obstruction, these values have been used to classify the total obstruction in 5 classes. The descriptive data of every class are given. The here-described classes are valid for Caucasian noses. The calculated data can be delivered on request by the authors.
CONCLUSION. The here-presented parameters for measuring the resistance of the nasal airway and the classification of the obstruction from a statistically representative material can be recommended for the daily practice in rhinology and rhinosurgery.
The terminal nerve (cranial nerve zero, cranial nerve XIII, the nerve “N”) was discovered in fish in 1894. In the early 90’s, it was found in human embryos and human adults. In the anterior fossa, it courses on the inner side of the olfactory tract and bulb; it then spreads fibers through the cribriform plate to distribute beneath the nasal septum mucosa. Being provided with intrinsic ganglion cells, its functions are weakly suggested by studies in different species. It may be connected with the visual system, it could act upon the intracranial vascular system, or it could ensure the pathway for pheromone-mediated behaviours. The cranial nerve zero deserves a better attention equally from anatomists and ENT specialists.
BACKGROUND. Crista galli is an anatomical structure localized in the midline, that derives from the ethmoid bone, with a compact bone structure, sometimes pneumatized. The connection between the pneumatized crista galli and the adjacent paranasal structures is usually performed through an opening similar with a sinusal ostium.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a retrospective clinical study about the incidence of the pneumatization of crista galli in 196 patients with chronic sinusitis. We evaluated the degree of pneumatization and the drainage pathways of crista galli, trying to correlate the radiological findings with the symptomatology of the patients with crista galli “sinusitis”.
RESULTS. Pneumatization of crista galli was found in 30.1% of cases. From 59 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and pneumatized crista galli, 66.4% had no opacification, 23.7% various degrees of opacification and 11.9% showed complete opacification. The presence of an opening of the pneumatized crista galli into surrounding air-cells was found in 16.98% of the patients. Headache was encountered in 76.2% of the patients with CRS and pneumatized crista galli sinusitis.
CONCLUSION. When analyzing a CT scan of a patient with CRS, we should also take into consideration the pneumatization of crista galli, which has a high variability. Most of the patients included in our study had also a certain degree of opacification of the pneumatized crista galli. Headache had a higher incidence in patients with crista galli inflammation than in CRS patients who showed no pneumatization or opacification of the crista galli (76.2% versus 60.5% in “simple” CRS patients).
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease consisting of recurrent angioedema attacks, varying in severity, possibly life-threatening and with frequent involvement of the head and neck areas. The patophysiology of HAE differs from histamine-mediated allergic angioedema. Three types of reduced quality or quantity in various complement or coagulation factors, leading to massive release of bradykinin, increase vascular permeability and produce capilary leakage. Clinical manifestations of HAE include swelling located predominantly in the head and neck area, hands, feet and urogenital area and abdominal pain caused by edema of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa. Diagnosis requires laboratory tests for complement components and genetic tests. A timely and correct diagnosis in the emergency room is of utmost importance, the medical treatment of HAE being substantially different from that of allergic angioedema. Although new therapies are available and in development, airway intervention and surgery are still life-saving procedures and the ENT surgeon is an important part of the multidisciplinary team managing an HAE attack.
Frequently encountered in medical practice, the gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a chronic condition characterized by the passage of gastric acid or gastric contents into the esophagus. In otorhinolaryngology, the diagnosis of pharyngo-laryngeal or rhinosinusal inflammatory conditions secondary to GER is one of exclusion and it is based on a detailed anamnesis in which we are interested in symptoms, behavioural and medical risk factors, on the ENT clinical examination, the laryngo-fibroscopical assessment, the phoniatric examination, the barite pharyngo-esogastric exam, the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the esophageal manometry.
The authors are making a systematization of the contribution of the gastroesophageal reflux has in the ENT pathology, emphasising the sympytoms and the most frequent associated pathological entities.
BACKGROUND. Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) has begun to be studied in detail by surgeons around the world since several decades ago from the need to verify functional integrity of the neural elements. Parotid gland surgery requires a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of this region by ENT surgeons. Also, the surgeons performing parotid surgery need to have important strategies of management which include: handiness to identify facial nerve, dissection nerve branches and application of neuromonitoring in order to preserve nerve functions.
OBJECTIVE. This study has analysed the usefulness of intraoperative continuous monitoring in superficial or in total parotidectomy. It identifies the facial nerve and reduces the risk of postoperative facial palsy. We have been using intraoperative continuous monitoring - evoked facial nerve electromyograms (EMG).
MATERIAL AND METHODS. Continuous intraoperative facial nerve monitoring was prospectively achieved in the case of three patients diagnosed with benign tumors, on which parotidectomy with the preservation of the nerve was carried out in order to highlight the value and efficacy of this method.
RESULTS. In our country, continuous intraoperative facial nerve monitoring performance is still not a common practice in ENT Departments. It revealed postoperatively that the incidence of temporary or permanent facial palsy was 0% and the minimal stimulation was obtained at levels equal to 0,5 mA, which implies integral functioning of the facial nerve.
CONCLUSION. In parotid surgery, facial nerve IONM represents the gold standard in recognition of real-time electrophysiological signals, electromyography waves and auditory signals to enable the correct approach wherever possible, avoiding extensive nerve damage. It is known the importance of continuous IONM in postoperative prognosis of the neural function and intraoperative decision making regarding the technical surgery.
Vlad Budu, Mihail Tusaliu, Alexandru Coman and Ioan Bulescu
The pterygopalatine fossa is an inverted pyramid-shaped space of the viscerocranium, protected by bony structures. Surgical access to this anatomical space is difficult, especially for tumor resection. There are numerous open surgical techniques for accessing this space, but nowadays, minimally-invasive endoscopic approaches are preferred in order to increase postoperative quality of life and reduce postoperative morbidities.
The tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa can be benign or malignant, and can occur primarily in the fossa or as secondary extensions from the surrounding regions through the multiple canals and foramina in its walls. Squamous cell carcinomas of this space have been described to appear as extensions from the nasopharynx, the paranasal sinuses or through perineural extension from the cutaneous branches of the maxillary nerve.
In this paper the authors present a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the pterygopalatine fossa, which was excised in an endoscopic transnasal approach after preoperative selective embolization.
Medicine is in an era of technical development and innovation. Creating a tympanic membrane by using a 3D printer can exceed the disadvantages that classic graft materials have. The field of otolaryngology can be experiencing a paradigm shift towards the use of 3D-printer.
BACKGROUND. Radiotherapy, associated with chemotherapy, is the main method of treatment in both early and advanced stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) provides high doses of radiation to the primary tumor, sparing the organs at risk. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is one of the most promising radiation methods which produces superior target coverage, improving the protection of organs at risk and reduces treatment time.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a retrospective study on 30 patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer and admitted in “Sfanta Maria” Clinical Hospital between October 2012 and December 2014. All patients have undergone VMAT-IMRT associated with induction or concurrent chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, patients were followed up at one, three and six months, and then every six months for 2 years.
RESULTS. At the end of the radio-chemotherapy treatment, 27 patients (90%) had a complete tumor and lymphatic response and 3 of them (10%) presented a partial response. At the end of the follow-up period, we observed 5 patients with recurrences, including 2 deceased.
CONCLUSION. VMAT-IMRT in association with chemotherapy treatment is well tolerated by patients. The good results reflected in high rates of cured patients, the low incidence of side effects, recommend this treatment plan as an optimal indication for nasopharyngeal tumors.