Mykhailo Lobur, Krzysztof Pytel, Uliana Marikutsa and Dmitrij Korpyljov
The article reveals the theoretical foundations, types of pollutants, classification of monitoring and visualization systems of air pollution. A description of the design of the structure of the system is described, its components are described in detail, and the justification of the selected technologies is given. In general, the system consists of two parts: a device for collecting air pollution data and a site that displays these data in user-friendly form. Graphic images that display the appearance of a software product are also added.
Mohamed Hassan Soliman, Bassel I. Nesser and Krzysztof Pytel
The publication presents the results of analysis of possible local benefits factored in utility scale wind energy for a remote location. Electricity is one of the most vital problems on the Earth, thus utility scale wind and solar energy devices are boosting economic development. Energy demand is constantly increasing, despite efforts to ensure the energy efficiency of devices. People are looking for more energy and electricity to consume. Although wind energy is still being researched and improved, modern generation of wind energy is becoming more and more effective and desirable. This publication presents an effective solution to this issue. It deals with the generation of green environment friendly electricity from wind turbine. The genuine idea is to provide energy for remote location using onshore wind turbines. An analysis of the demand for energy at a remote location and electricity consumption was made to provide preliminary calculations of the wind farm. The number of required turbines is determined taking into account all related factors. A specific wind turbine has been selected and proposed to provide the necessary location with the necessary amount of energy. The analysis carried out showed that the produced energy is environment friendly since there is no carbon dioxide emission.
One of the components that affects the energy consumption of belt conveyors is the rotational resistance of the rollers. In real conditions, the roller is subjected to loads not only radial but also axial, resulting from its cooperation with the belt and the way of installation on the conveyor. Knowledge of these resistances is important not only in the design of conveyors, but also in the improvement and search for new structural solutions of the rollers. The article presents an innovative stand dedicated to the study of rotational resistance of the rollers under operating load, its research capabilities and the results of preliminary tests.
Concentration tables are one of the oldest oscillatory enrichments with over 100 years of tradition. On this type of distribution tables are made according to material mass in many recurring cycles induced by appropriate drives. So-called wet tables are the devices most often used for coal enrichment in Polish mines because this process generates very high costs, high water consumption and pollution of the environment, as well as the need for, among others, water and mud management is increasingly being replaced mainly in areas poor in water by the modern model of the air concentration table – FGX produced in China. The process of enrichment on this type of table itself runs in a manner comparable to the method of wet enrichment with the difference that the FGX is distributed on a perforated plate, in this case we deal with air pollution. Department of Machinery Engineering and Transport's attempts to use the differences in coefficients of friction in over-resonance screens have shown that it is possible effective separation of grains with different coefficients of friction. The article presents a theoretical analysis and presents the results of performed dry enrichment trials using different coefficients of friction. The summary presents the advantages of using the enrichment method using the differences in friction coefficients and test results.
Stanisław Trenczek, Rajmund Mann and Eugeniusz Krause
The article presents the principles of safe cutting of rocks prone to generate igniting methane sparks. A list of methane ignitions and explosions from the sparking of rocks caused by cutting with road header was given. Unusual case of methane ignition in conditions of full technical and technological protection of roadway development is discussed. In conclusions, the importance of an individual approach to geological and mining conditions in the case of the need to cut sparking rocks was emphasized.
The article attempts to analyze the work of the concentration table, on which the distribution of the material under investigation takes place. The efficiency of separation or otherwise enrichment depends on the drive that puts the concentration table plate into an asymmetrical reciprocating movement. The most frequently used solutions are concentration tables, on which the distribution of enriched material takes place in an aqueous medium commonly called wet enrichment. The AGH University of Science and Technology conducted simulation tests of material enrichment on a concentration table using the differences in friction coefficient commonly referred to as dry enrichment, i.e. without an additional medium. The article presents the effects of simulations that have been carried out for reference materials characterized by different friction coefficients and densities. The summary presents the analysis of obtained effects of computer simulations of material movement with different coefficients of friction. The simulations were carried out for variables: the frequency of vibrations of the concentration table and the angle of inclination of the table of the concentration table. It has been shown that it is possible to enrich the material by changing the above-mentioned operating parameters of the device.
In recent years, there has been a dynamic increase in the use of multirotor flying robots in various areas of economic and social life. Robots of this kind may be used in environmental research, after equipping them with an appropriate measuring systems. This includes taking measurements of various types of contaminants, such as: particulate matter (PM), various gases, noise and light pollution. To make this possible, it is necessary to conduct advanced model-simulation tests of the flying platform, analyse and determine the appropriate location for the measurement system. Most of the current research on methods and techniques of taking measurements on the flying platform does not take into account these issues. This work consists of two main parts: modeling and simulation tests, and experimental part carried out in laboratory conditions. As part of the work, quadrocopter dynamics equations have been developed and implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The developed discrete mathematical model made it possible to simulate different robot maneuvers: upward, forward, sideways and rotation flight. In order to determine the required characteristics of the multicopter drive sets, a mobile dynamometer station was designed, constructed and programmed. The dynamometer allows, among others, to take measurements of thrust force, torque and rotational speed. The final stage of the work was the development of the numerical model and CFD calculations of the quadrocopter. In this part, distributions of the pressure fields and velocity for the robot's hover state were determined.
The paper presents calculations of global solar irradiance on inclined surfaces of any orientation in the hourly time step. For computational purposes there were used the data from typical meteorological years (TMY) available in a form of text files on the website of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Development. Hourly solar global horizontal irradiance from measurements from the file for Kraków was used as input for five anisotropic models (Hay, Muneer, Reindl, Perez and Perez according to the new PN-EN ISO 52010-1 standard). Direct normal and diffuse horizontal and then global irradiances were calculated. To illustrate the effects of using different models, for the exemplary residential building, monthly solar heat gains and heating demand was determined according to the monthly method of PN-EN ISO 13790. In comparison to the solar data from the TMY, an average decrease in the value of solar gains amounted 37%, what resulted in an increase in the calculated heat demand of the building by 10%. This is very important since this change takes place without any modernisation works.
Raw materials produced in large quantities are ground in ball, vibratory and stirred ball mills. In mills, the working parts are grinding balls. During grinding, grinding balls wear, change their diameter and lose their shape. The effect of this is the unfavourable change in the grinding balls parameters, which results in deterioration of the technological conditions of the milling process. Relevant parameters of the grinding balls set are restored during maintenance shutdowns. Grinding balls are sorted into appropriate size classes; grinding balls that are not suitable for further use are rejected, and then a set of grinding balls with appropriate parameters is used again. The time needed to prepare the required set depends mainly on the sorting time. To reduce this time, appropriate grinding balls sorting machines are used. The paper presents major problems associated with the grinding balls sorting process, a comparison of modern types of grinding balls sorting machines, a description of their construction and technological parameters.
Piotr Kipczak, Krzysztof Władzielczyk and Rafał Dudek
The article presents a modified calculation model of loads of cone bearing systems in tricone roller bits. The presented model includes the actual nature of the loads of a tricone roller bit and the effect of these loads on the construction of individual elements of the cone bearing systems. The presented calculation model was created in order to develop a computer program that allows the calculation and verification of structural parameters of cone bearing systems even at the stage of their initial design. It will allow an optimal selection of these parameters to geological properties of drilled rocks.