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An Approach for Survey of the Sustainable Development at Regional Level: Case of Bulgaria

Abstract

Many national and EU strategies and documents put targets that will lead to a positive change for people and better life. For examples, the EU 2020 strategy assess the progress by indicators focused on employment, investment in research and development, education, energy efficient and risk of poverty. The system for monitoring of sustainable development in Bulgaria includes 56 indicators grouped in ten key areas such as socio-economic development, sustainable consumption and production, social inclusion, demographic changes, public health, sustainable transport, natural resources, global partnership and good governance. But at regional level, these sets of indicators are difficult to apply by many reasons. The aim of research was testing of an approach for survey of the sustainable development of a territorial unit. A complex index for assessment of sustainable development of territorial units was design by set of significant indicators, which evaluate socio-economic conditions for life and development in the territorial unit. The approach and the index were applied for survey of NUTS 3 level regions in Bulgaria, according the EU legislation, by using the last available official data of the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. Benefits of the approach using were summarized.

Open access
Approach on Increasing User Security Awareness

Abstract

Currently, social engineering attacks are increasingly sophisticated and the main factor that can influence the success of these techniques is the employee. Awareness of these types of attacks through permanent information sessions can be a good practice for any organization. In this work, besides the approach to the development of eLearning content accessible to employees, there are presented some methods and tools that can be used to avoid the theft of sensitive information or the infection of hosts on the network.

Open access
Approach to Combined Education and Training in Security and Defense

Abstract

The author presents the abstract idea of creating modularity in the subjects studied for acquiring educational degrees and the knowledge necessary for the improvement of the qualification, creating parallelism and complimentarily between the education and the training. The presented ideas exist in the system of higher education but they have not been applied so far in the improvement of qualification.

Open access
The Aspect of Power Supply in Exploitation of Transport Telematics Systems

Abstract

Transport telematics systems operate under various operational conditions. As elements, which are responsible, among others, for the transport process safety, they should maintain their usability. One of the key problems is to ensure the power supply continuity in the transport telematics systems. In order to provide it, relevant power supply systems are used. The state of unfitness of power supply constitutes a failure in the system operation, the result of which can be downtime in operation of the entire transport telematics system or its part. The article carried out a reliability and operation analysis of the power supply system, which consists of three independent energy sources. The relationships, which allow to specify the probabilities of the system’s staying in the distinguished states, were determined.

Open access
Aspects Regarding the Particularities of the Military Actions in the War of the Future

Abstract

The topic “the War of the Future” is and will always be a current issue of high relevance for both military staff and politicians. The war is a complex social phenomenon determined by many factors: political, economic, cultural, religious, technological, etc., which in the context of globalization suffer rapid and profound transformations. Due to changes in these factors, everything that is related to the armed forces is inevitably altered and here we refer to: dimensions, structures, training, equipment and weapons, doctrines, organizing, planning and the spatial and temporal magnitude of military actions and operations, their effects and, of course, consequences.

Open access
Assessing methods for the estimation of response times of stream discharge: the role of rainfall duration

Abstract

Lagtimes and times of concentration are frequently determined parameters in hydrological design and greatly aid in understanding natural watershed dynamics. In unmonitored catchments, they are usually calculated using empirical or semiempirical equations developed in other studies, without critically considering where those equations were obtained and what basic assumptions they entailed. In this study, we determined the lagtimes (LT) between the middle point of rainfall events and the discharge peaks in a watershed characterized by volcanic soils and swamp forests in southern Chile. Our results were compared with calculations from 24 equations found in the literature. The mean LT for 100 episodes was 20 hours (ranging between 0.6–58.5 hours). Most formulae that only included physiographic predictors severely underestimated the mean LT, while those including the rainfall intensity or stream velocity showed better agreement with the average value. The duration of the rainfall events related significantly and positively with LTs. Thus, we accounted for varying LTs within the same watershed by including the rainfall duration in the equations that showed the best results, consequently improving our predictions. Izzard and velocity methods are recommended, and we suggest that lagtimes and times of concentration must be locally determined with hyetograph-hydrograph analyses, in addition to explicitly considering precipitation patterns.

Open access
An Assessment of Anaerobic Thermophilic Co-Digestion of Dairy Cattle Manure and Separated Tomato Greenhouse Waste in Lab-Scale Reactors

Abstract

Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cow manure (DCM) and separated tomato greenhouse waste (tomato stalks and leaves (TSL) and rotten and damaged tomato fruits – TF) was conducted under batch thermophilic conditions (T = 55 °C) for period of 45 days. Concentrations of substrates (tomato waste) were 5 and 10% (w/v). Each substrate, as well as experimental mixtures, was analysed in order to specify the content of pH, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total extractable nitrogen (TN) and total organic carbon (TOC). Biogas yield and composition, as well as cumulative biogas curves, were reported. In comparison to DCM monodigestion (329.5 cm3·g−1 VS), biogas yield was significantly improved in experiment C (365.1 cm3·g−1 VS) (with 5% (w/v) TF added), whereas methane yield did not show any significant difference. Experiment D (with 10% (w/v) TSL added) resulted in significantly lower biogas and methane yields in contrast to the rest of experiments performed. Average methane content in all analysed experimental samples ranged from 65 to 69%. It is evident from the results that biogas production can be improved by addition of separated tomato greenhouse waste to DCM process and issue of organic waste disposal could be effectively solved.

Open access
Attitudes to Gender Roles in Romania

Abstract

The paper analyses the attitude towards gender roles and their dynamics in Romania in the context of economic, social, political and cultural changes due to the transition from the traditional, modern to the postmodern society. In order to achieve this goal, we used the attitude measurement scale versus the gender roles used in two stages of the World Value Survey 2014, 2018.

Open access
Automatic Construction of Digital Woven Fabric by Using Sequential Yarn Images

Abstract

In this article, a computerized method is proposed for simulating digital woven fabric (DWF) based on sequential yarn images captured from a moving yarn. A mathematical model of woven fabric structure is established by assuming that the crimped shape of yarns in weave structure is elastica, and the cross-sections of yarn in sequence image and fabric are circular and ellipse, respectively. The sequential yarn images, which are preprocessed and stitched first by image processing methods, are resized based on the mathematical model. Then a light intensity curve, which consists of radial curve model and axial curve model, is used to simulate the gray texture distribution of interlacing points in radial and axial directions. Finally, a Boole Matrix model is used to control the woven pattern. In the experiment, a slub yarn and a normal yarn samples with same count are applied to simulate gray texture fabrics. Then the gray fabrics are transformed to color fabrics based on three color maps. The fabric simulations are confined to single fabrics of plain, 2/2 matt, and 1/3 twill weaves.

Open access
Bank erosion of the Tŕstie stream: BANCS model predictions vs. real bank erosion

Abstract

This paper focused on predicting the bank erosion through the Bank Assessment for Non-point source Consequences of Sediment (BANCS) model on the Tŕstie water stream, located in the western Slovakia. In 2014, 18 experimental sections were established on the stream. These were assessed through the Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) and the Near Bank Stress (NBS) index. Based on the data we gathered, we constructed two erosion prediction curves. One was for BEHI categories low and moderate, and one for high, very high, and extreme BEHI. Erosion predicted through the model correlated strongly with the real annual bank erosion – for low and moderate BEHI, the R2 was 0.51, and for high, very high and extreme BEHI, the R2 was 0.66. Our results confirmed that the bank erosion can be predicted with sufficient precision on said stream through the BANCS model.

Open access