The article is theoretical-empirical in character. In the theoretical part on the basis of the results of cognitive-critical analysis of literature on the subject the chosen aspects associated with the role of the university as an employer and with the way universities can efficiently attract young people as potential employees are discussed. Attention was paid also to the necessity to apply complex image-related activities and to visible negligence in this area. The results of this analysis point to the existence of a cognitive and research gap. It is because the previous theoretical deliberations and empirical analyses conducted with regard to such activities refer to companies and not to universities. That’s why the article strives to achieve, among others, such goals as: identification of the reasons for the lack of interest in work at a university among the respondents; defining the changes in the reasons for the lack of interest in work at a university given by the respondents in the 2016–2018 period; hierarchical arrangement of the identified reasons. In the process of carrying out these goals an attempt was made to find answers to three research questions and to test the research hypothesis saying that sex is a feature differentiating the reasons for the lack of interest in work at a university mentioned by the respondents. In the empirical part of the article the results of an analysis of primary data collected by means of the method of questionnaire survey are presented. In course of the analysis the method of average assessment analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used. The results of the analysis show that the significance of the reasons for the respondents’ unwillingness to start work at a university has changed. Also, their hierarchy has changed. Moreover, sex turned out to be the distinguishing feature in case of only one reason, namely, the will to use knowledge and skills gained during studies in a workplace other than a university.
The article constitutes a presentation of the areas of research which can be used in course of planning and implementation of public relations activities in a company. Also, those which can be regarded as crucial and necessary have been highlighted. Research described in the article concerns to a large extent building image and relations with the representatives of a company’s environment. In the publication areas of research conducted by means of various techniques, e.g. CATI, CAWI have been presented. The material also presents a method which is supposed to systematize research projects. It makes it possible to use comprehensive data collected in a company in the decision-making process. The article also contains a presentation of analyses which are conducted in association with the process of preparing a company for potential image crises and carried out during and after the emergence of threats bearing the characteristics of an image crisis.
Olumide Jaiyeoba, Chux Gervase Iwu and Edward Marandu
The quest for the diversification of Botswana’s mineral-led economy necessitates an examination of other performing ones such as the Tourism-Transport and Finance-Consulting small service sectors which have been identified as also contributing immensely to its economy. So, this paper investigates variations in market orientation and performance among small service firms in Botswana. In more specific terms, it involves analysis of variations with regard to tourism-transport and finance-consulting firms. Set in Botswana, data were obtained, using a respondent-completed questionnaire from 54 managers in the tourism-transport sector and 121 managers in the finance-consulting sector. Despite the focus of the study on sectoral variations among service firms in Botswana, the study makes major contributions to our understanding of market orientation-performance link. First, the overall level of market orientation varied significantly between the two sectors. Secondly, two of the three components of market orientation, namely intelligence generation and intelligence responsiveness also displayed statistically significant differences between each component and the two sectors. Thirdly, organizational commitment, team spirit and customer satisfaction were significantly different between the two sectors. These findings suggest the need for a sustained and systematic study aimed at finding out the relative importance of market orientation in different sectors. Such a study may be helpful in suggesting differentiated marketing orientation emphases that may help firms optimize their marketing budget. Notwithstanding the several scholarly works on market orientation and firm performance, the value of market orientation in sub-Saharan Africa has only begun to receive attention in Africa. Research evidence is scanty in the case of Botswana.
The article is theoretical-empirical in character. For the preparation of the theoretical part the method of cognitive-critical analysis of literature on the subject from the area of marketing and management was used. On the basis of the results of this analysis it is possible to conclude that there is a cognitive and research gap with regard to the identification of the reasons for the lack of interest in the university as an employer. For the purpose of reducing these gaps, five research goals and a hypothesis were formulated. The hypothesis says that gender is a feature differentiating the reasons for the lack of will to start working at a university. For the purpose of achieving these targets and checking the research hypothesis empirical research was conducted. In course of the empirical research the method of questionnaire survey was used to collect primary data. The survey covered the representatives of the group of young, Polish, potential employees. The collected primary data was processed by means of statistical analysis and Kruskal-Willis test. The results of this analysis suggest that the respondents followed mainly negative associations with universities, relying on their own experiences and on external opinions. It turned out that gender was a differentiating feature to a statistically significant extent only in case of one reason, namely, the will to use knowledge acquired during studies in a workplace other than a university.
The airline industry constitutes a challenge for marketing specialists due to high dynamics of provision of information. Airlines strive to communicate more and more effectively with the passenger. The specific character of the branch also constitutes a challenge for mobile application developers, who update them more often than applications of companies from other branches.
The goal of this article will be discussing the processes of building relations, efficient communication with clients on the market of passenger airline services using mobile applications. Up till now this problem hasn’t been the subject of both literature studies and empirical research. Source materials for the work will be available literature on the subject, own analyses based on secondary sources, as well as empirical studies conducted among passengers.
The phenomenon of crowdsourcing — enabling the crowd to get involved in the activities of an organization by means of new media (Estelles — Arolas, Gonzales — Lordon — de — Guevara, 2012) — is drawing the attention of research teams. It is successfully used by the biggest scientific centres both in case of life sciences and humanities. The following article is supposed to compare various strategies of applying this phenomenon to the creation and dissemination of knowledge. 40 crowdsourcing projects were subject to exploratory observation. Their description was based on the desk research analysis of Internet websites, applications and other Internet sources. On the basis of variables describing the ordered task, the character of the crowd, incentives built into the process and the method of providing answers an empirically rooted classification of the described projects was created. Its detailed description made it possible to highlight the ways research teams use crowdsourcing and to define the areas which the authors should take into consideration planning the utilization of this phenomenon in their work: connecting the kind of the offered task with the moment of the research process at which it is applied, defining the level of expertise necessary to carry out the task, building into the process appropriate incentives and choosing the appropriate method of verifying answers.
Gintarė Bartkevičiūtė, Asta Gaigalienė and Renata Legenzova
The article analyses demographic factors which determine the students’ intention to borrow and to choose a particular credit service, i.e., what characteristics of credit services are the most important for students when making a choice of a particular credit service.
The article has theoretical-empirical character. In the theoretical part on the base of the results of cognitivecritical analysis of world literature the meaning of potential employees' connotations with a future employer was presented. The special attention was paid to the key role of these connotations in the case of an university as the employer. Universities should shape their image among young participants of outer labour market on the base of buiding the positive connotations. They can be diversified depending on the demographical features. The fact of lack of researches in this scope was underlined. So there is the cognitive and research gap. In this article the following goals were to be realized: identifying connotations with an university as the future employer among women and men; conducting the comparison of identified connotations etc. 2 research hypotheses were formulated. In the process of gaining mentioned goals and checking the both hypotheses the empirical research were realized. These research covered representatives of young potential employees. To gather the primary data the method of questionnaire survey was applied. Gathered data were analyzed statistically. The method of factor analysis was applied and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. The results of these analyses showed that connotations of women were different from connotations of men. Statistical significance was identified in the case of positive connotations mainly.
Ludmila Kozubíková, Martin Čepel and Monika Zlámalová
The research of personality characteristics of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) entrepreneurs in relation to EO constructs is an important part of the research of the whole entrepreneurial environment of small and medium-sized enterprises. The aim of this paper is to search for a relationship between personality traits and the attitude toward innovativeness as a construct of EO of SME entrepreneurs in the Czech Republic based on their sociodemographic factors (gender, education, and age). Results from a questionnaire-based survey of the entrepreneurial environment of SME in the Czech Republic showed that the attitude toward innovativeness differed for entrepreneurs considering perseverance and responsibility to be important for entrepreneurship based on their education level. Entrepreneurs with secondary education or secondary educated with graduation were more confident about the reputation of their business as an innovator than university educated entrepreneurs.
Mohammed Idris, Yousef Abu Siam and Mahmoud Nassar
This research examines the moderating effect of family ownership over the relationship between board independence and earnings management. Using information of industrial companies indexed on Amman Stock Exchange, this research provides evidence of negative relationship between board independence and earnings management, proposing that higher percentage of board independence is related with more effective monitoring to reduce earnings management. Moreover, the results document that the relationship between board independence and earnings management becomes weak when there is an interaction with family ownership control. These outcomes indicate that an increase in the percentage of independent directors to mitigate earnings management is less likely to be influential in the case of family controlled firms. The results of this research could be valuable to regulators in their efforts to restrict the incidence of earnings management and improve the quality of monitoring mechanisms, especially in an environment where the capital market is still evolving and the legal protection and law enforcement are weak.