Dawid Golik, Marta Gortych and Urszula Kołodziejczyk
As an effective way of flood prevention it is widely accepted to construct flood embankments. These structures are getting bigger as the river changes from meandring to successive development of floodplain and narrowing the embankment. Meanwhile, it is worth returning old solutions and reactivating old floodplain polders. There are currently three polders on the central Odra River: Kiełcz-Tarnów-Bycki – with a capacity of approximately 15 million m3, Połupin – with a capacity of 70 million m3 and Krzesin-Bytomiec – with a capacity of 20 million m3. Three further reservoirs are designed in: Urad – 30 million ha, Słubice Górzyca – 60 million ha and Ługi Górzyckie – 30 million ha. The authors propose additionally a reactivation of seven archival polders, with total capacity of approximately 4.9 million m3.
The study presents a management model for post-mining areas, which includes the process of reclamation and management in the context of the socio-ecological system. This means that it is necessary to include the relations in the management system that occur between the main stakeholders (internal relations) and the ecological, economic and socio-cultural conditions of the environment (external relations). Verification of the recommended model was carried out on the basis of the analysis of environmental, economic and socio-cultural processes currently observed in the Adamów Brown Coal Basin, which is in the phase of liquidation. The conclusion presents constraints in the legal system that are not propitious for comprehensive solutions in the field of revitalization.
Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Aleksandra Sieciechowicz and Zofia Sadecka
In sewage treatment plants for removing nitrogen compounds are used biological processes of nitrification and denitrification. The parameters determining the efficiency of biological processes of nitrogen removal are organic carbon ratio (BOD5) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), temperature and pH. The impact of these parameters on the operation of the sewage treatment plant with an RLM of 45,000 based on operational data from the period 2011-2013 has been assessed. The efficiency of removing nitrogen compounds from sewage in the analysed treatment plant depended on the temperature of sewage and the quotient BOD5/TKN. Even at the optimal ranges of BOD5/TKN ratio temperature at 10°C nitrogen concentration in the treated wastewater was about 3 times higher than the limit value, and the removal efficiency of nitrogen varied between about 30 to 60%.
The article analyzes the effectiveness of individual Actibloc wastewater treatment plants (produced by Sotralentz) working in the technology of low-rate activated sludge in the Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) system. The assessment of the effectiveness of household wastewater treatment plants was made on the basis of pollutants: BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The research objects were four household sewage treatment plants located in: Lubań, Kłębanowice, Stara Rzeka and Kościan. The efficiency of removing pollutants in the examined facilities was in the range of: BOD5 92.2 ÷ 97.2%, COD 82.6 ÷ 89.9%, total suspended solids 90.2 ÷ 96.2%, total nitrogen 50.8 ÷ 83.1%, total phosphorus 46.5 ÷ 73.6%. The treated wastewater met the requirements set out in the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment on the conditions to be met when discharging sewage into water or soil, and on substances particularly harmful to the aquatic environment (Journal of Laws 2014, item 1800) in terms of indicators such as BOD5, COD, total suspended solids and total nitrogen. The effectiveness of phosphorus removal in the studied treatment plants was much lower.
The article discusses effectiveness of treatment of groundwater with increased natural organic matter content with the use of organic polyelectrolytes. The effects of water treatments were determined by the ionic character of the polyelectrolyte and its dose. Due to the amount of removed general ferric and coloured matters a greater usefulness of anionic and non-ionic polyelectrolytes was shown, while due to decreased turbidity and TOC, cationic flocculants proved more useful. Using the Praestol 2540 semi-anionic polyelectrolyte as the substance aiding the coagulation process decreased the effectiveness of groundwater treatment, especially in terms of the removal of iron and organic substances when using the PIX-112 coagulating agent.
Arkadiusz Denisiewicz, Krzysztof Kula, Tomasz Socha and Grzegorz Kwiatkowski
The article presents the results of laboratory tests of selected mechanical and physical properties of fine-grained concrete. The tests were carried out on samples with varying degrees of microsilica addition. The consistency class, shrinkage, compressive and bending strength, water resistance and frost resistance were determined for the designed concrete mixtures and made samples.
A low carbon economy serves to provide economic, social and environmental benefits from measures to reduce emissions of pollutants. The implementation of a low carbon economy in Poland results from the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants while reducing the share of coal in energy production, introducing innovative technologies and improving energy efficiency as well as increasing the standard of living of the society. This is a difficult task due to the large use of coal in energy production. The article describes the goals of creating Low Carbon Economy Plans by local government units at the local level and their use in applying for financial resources in the financial perspective 2014-2020.
The growing demand for solutions of household sewage treatment plants means that many new or improved technological solutions are available on the market. The implementation of these technologies is associated with the need to known the mechanisms of the unitary biological processes occurring when removing organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. Determining the optimal conditions for these processes will determine the correct operation of the household sewage treatment plant.
Ahmed Khene, Habib Abdelhak Mesbah and Nasr-Eddine Chikh
In this study, we have chosen to use a new technique of reinforcement with composite materials, namely the near surface mounted technique (NSM). The NSM technique consists in inserting strips of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate into slits made beforehand at the level of the concrete coating of the elements to be reinforced. A numerical investigation was conducted on rectangular reinforced concrete beams reinforced with NSM-CFRP using the ATENA finite element code. A parametric study was also carried out in this research. The numerical results were compared with the experimental results of the beams tested by other researchers with the same reinforcement configurations. Overall, numerical behavior laws are rather well-suited to those obtained experimentally and the parametric study has also yielded interesting results.
Piotr Ziembicki, Marcin Klimczak and Jan Bernasiński
The paper presents the analytical and consultancy system which aims at a complex, comprehensive, multi-criteria energy performance analysis of a given building or a group of buildings and at making a recommendation for an energy source with regard to CO2 emission and investment costs determined on the basis of indicators included in the knowledge databases. The analytical and consultancy system employs advanced energy performance computer simulations of buildings as well as innovative analytical algorithms worked out and contributed by the authors, including those based on the knowledge base developed on the grounds of performance data from selected buildings of various types situated in a dozen or so cities of different population in Poland.