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The Application of Computer Image Analysis Based on Textural Features for the Identification of Barley Kernels Infected with Fungi of the Genus Fusarium

Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop discrimination models based on textural features for the identification of barley kernels infected with fungi of the genus Fusarium and healthy kernels. Infected barley kernels with altered shape and discoloration and healthy barley kernels were scanned. Textures were computed using MaZda software. The kernels were classified as infected and healthy with the use of the WEKA application. In the case of RGB, Lab and XYZ color models, the classification accuracies based on 10 selected textures with the highest discriminative power ranged from 95 to 100%. The lowest result (95%) was noted in XYZ color model and Multi Class Classifier for the textures selected using the Ranker method and the OneR attribute evaluator. Selected classifiers were characterized by 100% accuracy in the case of all color models and selection methods. The highest number of 100% results was obtained for the Lab color model with Naive Bayes, LDA, IBk, Multi Class Classifier and J48 classifiers in the Best First selection method with the CFS subset evaluator.

Open access
Automatization in road transport: a review

Abstract

In this article automatization of road transport is investigated. In the first chapter relevant international trends were identified. In this paper the research hypothesis is that in the case of automatized road vehicles there is a significant likelihood of endangering human life. Secondly, the history of road safety is shortly described, especially focusing on vehicle design and sweep of system’s theory. In the third chapter evolution of drivers’ assistance systems were elaborated, emphasizing especially autonomous vehicles. Finally, in conclusion the authors warn that new technological solutions could pose new threats.

Open access
Behaviour Based Safety (BBS) - Advantages and Criticism

Abstract

Behaviour-Based Safety (BBS) is a popular approach to enhancing occupational safety, with many researchers reporting successes of implementing BBS programs. There are, however, studies that see this approach as illusory, bringing more harm than good. The first goal of this article is to present an overview of literature providing both evidence and elaboration of implementing BBS programs, highlighting both positive and negative views of the approach. The second goal is to discuss the perception of the method, based on a literature review and authors’ own research.

Open access
Comparative Analysis of the Level of Satisfaction with the Services Received at the Business Incubators in USA and Poland – pre-incubation and incubation stage

Abstract

The paper concentrate on the problems of customers satisfaction from services in incubator centres in USA and Poland. The aim of the paper is to analyse the level of satisfaction of Business Incubation Centre on the example of two incubator centres one from USA (Hazelton CAN-Be in Pennsylvania and second in Gliwice Poland). The analysis was conducted in pre-incubation and incubation stage. The analysis was conducted on example of survey analysis in both incubator centres. On the base of achieved results we assessed the priority of customers in each incubator centre.

Open access
Concepts and Methods of Mathematic Modelling of Plant Growth and Development. Plant Germination -Part I

Abstract

Contemporary agricultural engineering searches for “safe” methods of raising crop yields, using a combination of knowledge from a number of sciences. Thus, computer modelling of plant growth and development fits this range, because it has become an area of interdisciplinary research. Presentation of knowledge in the form of mathematical computer models is one of paradigms of agricultural production systems based on the scientific and practical knowledge and information. In the scientific activity concerning agricultural engineering research tasks related to mathematical modelling of agrobiological processes have been carried out for many years. Additionally, the use of modern forecasting techniques in agriculture may bring real financial advantages with regard to the fact that based on crop yield prediction estimation of their cultivation profitability is possible. Dynamic and continuous progress of computer and informative technologies creates new opportunities showing thus growth directions of agricultural engineering. Taking this into consideration, it should be emphasised that mathematical modelling constitutes a support for decision processes which take place in agricultural production. This article discusses mathematical models, where the analysed system is described with the use of mathematical formulas. The objective of the paper was to present the current state of knowledge on mathematical methods in describing and predicting seeds germination. Possibilities of their use and new challenges which occur in the description of seeds germination were presented.

Open access
Concepts and Methods of Mathematical Modelling of Plant Growth and Development. Plant Germination – Part II

Abstract

Interdisciplinary nature of scientific research with regard to agriculture caused a development of mathematical modelling with regard to plant growth and development. Application of mathematical sciences in agriculture suits well the area of agricultural engineering which covers the issues related to inter alia, application of mathematical sciences. This article presents mathematical models, in which the analysed system is described with mathematical formulas. The objective of the paper was to present the current state of knowledge on mathematical methods in description and prediction of plant germination. Possibilities of the use of mathematical models and new challenges occurring in the description of plant germination were presented.

Open access
Food quality and safety in the brewing industry

Abstract

The article presents the importance of economic and social responsibility of the brewing industry, pointing to the aspect of synergy related to the brewing industry in the processes of economic development (creation of many jobs in the agricultural sector, retail trade and gastronomy), stimulating specific areas of local and regional development. The principles of organization and supervision of food quality and safety in beer brewing as well as the importance of implementing management systems in the activity of brewing industry companies were presented.

Open access
Irregular operation of autonomous vehicles

Abstract

Today, with the spread of autonomous functions in vehicles, the role accountability for causing accidents is emphasized. Self-guided functions work in certain traffic situations, but accidents happen, and, therefore, the following article presents an analysis of the issue. Its purpose is to show that vehicles with self-drive functionality do not provide the driver's level of safety that vehicle manufacturers suggest. In this article, four recent events and an analysis whether these accidents could have been avoided a human driver or how they could have happened with appropriate self-drive function. In each of the investigated cases, vehicles equipped with self-drive function are involved. Based on the evaluation and assessment of accidents, conclusions are drawn whether current self-propelled vehicles provide the safety level that drivers and society expect from these vehicles. The reconstruction of the accident process is illustrated with the help of a vehicle simulation program, with the resultant parameters being given a special emphasis, in particular to the avoidance of the accident.

Open access
Labour Consumption of Production of Selected Fruit

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to analyse the expenditures of labour in production of three selected fruit types (apples, black currant and gooseberry) including, inter alia, in relation to the surface area of a plantation. The total inputs of labour were calculated with a division into manual and mechanized works. Moreover, a detailed structure of manual and mechanized works was presented. It was stated, inter alia, that labour consumption of apple production is approximately four times higher in comparison to black currant and gooseberry. No impact of the plantation size on the total work inputs on fruit production was reported.

Open access
Modern Animal Production and Animal Welfare

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to discuss the links between modern livestock production, including its techniques and concentration, with animal welfare requirements. Modern livestock production is related to modern facilities, precise livestock production, as well as intensive and high stocking density. At the same time, it requires providing the animals with minimal living conditions, i.e. the welfare set out in the relevant regulations. This in turn should guarantee a good quality of raw livestock materials and products.

Open access