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Farid Agushybana, Issara Siramaneerat, Arga Nugraha, Sarinthorn Mungkhamanee, Sawanya Siriphakhamongkhon and Jadsada Udompittayason

Abstract

The fertility rate (TFR) has decreased from around 5.6 births per woman in 1967 to around 2.4 births today. This study examined the desired number of children and related factors among adolescents in Indonesia in order to clarify expected fertility behavior. This study employed the data from a national survey of National Medium Term Development Plan 2015 (RPJMN 2015). This paper involved unmarried adolescences aged 15-24. The selected respondents were 37,538 persons. The multiple linear regression was applied to predict the model. The result showed that the majority of respondents were female, aged 15-16 years old, mostly senior high school level, had been out of school, unemployed, and lived in rural areas of Java, Bali and Sumatra. The average desired number of children was 2.46, with a 0.86 standard deviation. The multiple linear regression showed that sex, age, education level, working status, contraceptive knowledge, and living in rural and various regions significantly influenced the number of expected children. In conclusion, the majority of respondents expressed their desire to have only one or two children in the future. However, in consideration of the fact that what one desires does not always reflect reality, the risk of falling fertility is generally present. Policymakers on family planning need to be aware of this issue and should identify key issues in childbirth policy to support families in having a reasonable amount of children.

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Ana Rusta

Abstract

In this essay importance will be given to the traditional and contemporary conception of the rural-urban divide. The traditional approach influenced by a hegemonic perspective has seen rural as urban residual by believing in the idea of a clear division between urban and rural, driven by demographic, cultural and economic factors. But today's empirical research in different fields, reflecting strong local and global dynamics, proves that the split between rural and urban is impossible. The change of these realities at the local and global scale has influenced the development of a thesis that reformulates the urban/rural relation under the perspective of a continuum, hybrid or liminal state. Today's urban research backs the idea that it is impossible to define once and for all what is rural and urban. Concrete cases taken in Europe and in Albania prove that the existence of realities with particular typology not only makes the existence of a general and universally accepted definition problematic, but also creates the need for a continuous, dynamic, and temporary re-definition of urban and rural.

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Veronica Akwenabuaye Undelikwo and Ebingha Erena Enang

Abstract

One of the greatest challenges confronting the government in Nigeria today is the need to reduce infant and child morbidity and mortality in order to achieve the sustainable development goal 2030. Infant mortality is generally used to describe the death of infants or babies that were born alive but died before their first birthday. There is generally marked inequality in infant death between developed and developing nations but also within them. Culture has been found to influence the health of the people especially in developing countries where majority of the people are traditionally oriented and superstitious. Several cultural values, beliefs and practices have considerable influence on the health behaviour of Nigerians, which has been adopted by pregnant women, and carried over to their children resulting in infant mortality. These cultural beliefs and practices are some of the major reasons for the low patronage of antenatal health care and orthodox medicine. People have remained bound to cultural beliefs and values. People tend to view events of diseases and deaths from the cultural and supernatural perspective, thereby causing mothers to stick to traditional and cultural practices in health matters. The paper is purely theoretical and relied heavily on secondary data and relevant literature on the issue under consideration. The paper calls for adequate awareness and enlightenment especially in areas where cultural practices are very ingrained and where infant mortality is high due to these practices.

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Eric Che Muma

Abstract

Since the introduction of democratic reforms in post-independent Africa, most states have been battling corruption to guarantee sustainable peace, human rights and development. Because of the devastating effects of corruption on the realisation of peace, human rights and sustainable development, the world at large and Africa in particular, has strived to fight against corruption with several states adopting national anti-corruption legislation and specialised bodies. Despite international and national efforts to combat corruption, the practice still remains visible in most African states without any effective accountability or transparency in decision-making processes by the various institutions charged with corruption issues. This has further hindered global peace, the effective enjoyment of human rights and sustainable development in the continent. This paper aims to examine the concept of corruption and combating corruption and its impact on peace, human rights and sustainable development in post-independent Africa with a particular focus on Cameroon. It reveals that despite international and national efforts, corruption still remains an obstacle to global peace in Africa requiring a more proactive means among states to achieve economic development. The paper takes into consideration specific socio-economic challenges posed by corruption and the way forward for a united Africa to combat corruption to pull the continent out of poverty, hunger and instability, and to transform it into a better continent for peace, human rights and sustainable development.

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Irén Virág

Abstract

Introduction: Philanthropism, as it evolved at the end of the 18th century in Germany, wanted to break completely with the contemporary methods persisting in education, with the hegemony of classical languages, and with the study of antique authors’ works; instead, it laid emphasis on practical and useful knowledge, on teaching modern languages, on acquiring knowledge based on demonstration, and on an intimate connection to nature. The impact of philanthropism on contemporary Hungarian public education, especially in the first half of the 19th century, can be clearly detected, which can be accredited to study trips to Germany and the Hungarian translations of German works. Salzmann’s institution, founded in 1784 was visited by 366 Hungarian educators, among others by Teréz Brunszvik, who also gave an account of her impressions in her memoires. Yet, we also need to mention Samuel Tessedik, who made good use of his experience gained during his journey to Germany in his school in Szarvas. Purpose: In this study, four 19th century female educational institutions were selected and the presence of philanthropist ideas in the training offered there was investigated. Three of these were established for the education of the middle-class, while one was founded specifically for aristocrats. We investigated whether the presence of philanthropism can be detected in the education offered by these four schools. Methods: In the presented study, we applied source analysis as a traditional research method in history of education. Conclusions: All the institutions under scrutiny have it in common that the founding and contributing educators and teachers were provably well-acquainted with the pedagogy of the philanthropists, and they incorporated several of its elements into their programmes. The preparation for the housewife role, conveying knowledge utilizable in practice, practical approach to teaching content, and the application of the method of illustration were all emphasized. These features show that several philanthropist characteristics can be identified in the educational principles and curricula of these institutions. Nevertheless, on closer inspection, it cannot be stated that they would have taken on an institutional character exclusively reminiscent of the “philanthropinums”

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Ida Zagyváné Szűcs

Abstract

Introduction: A group of researchers have worked out the Teacher Trainers’ Professional Competences in Hungary. The aim of the research was to explore whether there are any differences among certain groups of teacher trainers concerning their self-reflection, self-evaluation and commitment to ongoing professional development. Methods: Structured interviews were carried out with a sample of 6 teacher trainers whose selection was based on two principles - those who are considered to be teacher trainers in Hungary and those who are available in one of the most important teacher training centres in Hungary - Eszterházy Károly University. The data analysis was done with the General Step-by Step Model of Qualitative Content Analysis supported by MAXQDA 12 software programme. Results: Self-reflection and self-evaluation are the most important factors in teacher trainers’ professional development. Existing standards and criteria to which they compare their achievements play an orienteering role in these two processes, as well as in their self-regulatory learning. However, the levels, the types and the methods of self-reflection can differ depending on what field of teacher training they are involved in and when they were trained as teachers. Discussion: The results of the study promote deeper understanding of teacher trainers’ professional competences regarding their commitment to professional development. It has been clearly stated for which group of teacher trainers scientific research as the highest level of reflection can be a basic requirement, and for which group it should be an expected learning outcome in the future. As research-based teacher training is being introduced in Hungary, parallel to it, all groups of teacher trainers will gradually be expected to carry out scientific research to accomplish the highest level of reflection. Limitations: The sample size does not cover the whole scope of teacher trainers, as instructors teaching specific disciplines were not interviewed, and the research was done in qualitative design, therefore the results cannot be generalized. A future research of quantitative design should cover more teacher trainers from other universities and regions. Conclusions: The general step by step model of qualitative content analysis has provided a detailed picture of the driver of the teacher trainers’ professional development. The evidence of the acceptance of the position of a role model for their instructed, mentored or supported student teachers, teacher assistants and teachers has been given by this research. The need for research-based teacher training in Hungary has been confirmed. Further research should be carried out focusing on teaching strategies, methods and good practices where self-reflection and self-evaluation play a crucial role in enhancing self-regulatory learning

Open access

Gabriela Rozvadský Gugová

Abstract

Introduction: The theory of attachment is widely recognized (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). This theory is based on four basic types of relationships. The sEMBU questionnaire does not focus on the relationships but parental behavior, however, parental behavior is the presentation of the relationship. Our goal was to determine the types of attachment and to obtain information about secure attachment by using cluster analysis. Methods: sEMBU primarily finds out about three basic patterns used in parental behaviour - rejection, emotional warmth and overprotection. We used the 23-item s(short)-EMBU which previously demonstrated to be satisfactory on the samples of students from Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy, East-Germany, and Sweden (Arrindell et al., 2001). The Slovak translation of the original sEMBU was published in 2007 (Poliaková, Mojžišová, & Hašto, 2007). Since relationships are closely related to rejection, emotional warmth and overprotection, we tried to find behavioral patterns based on Bowlby’s attachment theory. We did not use standard procedures. Using cluster analysis, we also sorted the sample into four groups based on the presupposed attachment styles. Results: Overprotection (father) has the highest share for classification and differentiation in the cluster. Emotional warmth (mother) has the highest share for classification and differentiation in the cluster. We expected to find out that the secure type of attachment prevails over avoidance both in mothers and fathers. Conclusions: Our results surprised us; in the case of mothers, secure attachment did not occur at all. We suggest to continue in the research of the Slovak version of sEMBU focused on the types of attachment, especially on the secure type of attachment.

Open access

Zuzana Geršicová and Silvia Barnová

Abstract

Introduction: The presented paper deals with the issues of the work of class teachers and their further education in the field of personal and social training. The main goal of the research was to find out about changes in personal and social development after the realization of social-pedagogical training. Methods: On the level of personal development, the authors were interested in the field of values and attitudes. On the level of social development, they focused on the changes in communication and opinion scales. The changes in the above fields were measured by means of a pre-test and a post-test which were administered before and after the realization of the training. Results: In the participants of the realized research, the research team, to a certain extent, succeeded in reducing prejudice and beliefs and the participants learnt about the necessity of considering students’ individual abilities and specific environmental influences on their behavior and manifestations at school. On the level of opinions, there was a shift towards a stronger belief in the significance of the impact of the environment and the family background on students’ behaviour and their personality traits. Discussion: The presented data are the results of a pilot probe and have brought initial insights related to the presented issues for the purposes of a longer and deeper research, which is in the phase of its realization. Limitations: As the project was realized with ten groups of teachers showing a deep interest in participating in it, it is not our ambition to generalize the obtained results; nevertheless, we find them interesting and inspiring. Conclusions: Along with knowledge from pedagogy and psychology, class teachers need a huge amount of creativity, ideas, techniques and methods, which can promote the development of students’ value orientation. The authors can see a clear perspective for teachers’ lifelong learning here

Open access

Tamás Sós

Abstract

Introduction: Examining the connection between vocational training and the world of work, nowadays it is essential to mention the “gap”, which keeps on growing, between training and the economy due to the quick technological changes. Purpose: The purpose of the research is scientific investigation of the demand process of competency expectations at workplaces in connection with careerstarter skilled workers having completed their vocational training at school, and of young specialists’ qualifications, motivation, and the supply process in three disadvantaged counties in Northern Hungary. Considering the conditions of the training of specialists, we started from the opinion, an axiom drawn up all over Europe, that there is a shortage of specialists in the labor market in quantitative and qualitative respects alike. Digitalization, “Economy 4.0” is basically transforming technological and logistics processes, while professions disappear, or new ones are created. In the field of employment, probably fewer, but more qualified, skilled workers will be needed. All these mean a significant challenge, a need for a change in specialists’ training, in the preparation for a new type of labor force. Methods: The method of the research was a primary data collection embracing the area of Northern Hungary, self-completed online questionnaires, complemented with focus group interviews. In the framework of a secondary analysis, according to stratified sampling, based on OECD-PISA survey, there will be a comparison of students’ average results on the European scale. Limitations: The lack of representativeness restricted the research with the employer survey. Results: The results of the research cast light on the sensitive points of vocational training at schools, on the educational deficit, on the shortcomings of the qualification system, and on the growing gap between training and the labor market. Conclusions: The conclusions are aimed at the improvement of vocational training, and at broadening the connections with the employers. There is a demand for an incentive system, so that along with big companies, also SMEs will take part in the formal training of professionals within the school system in bigger and bigger proportions. We will further continue our studies in this direction

Open access

Szilvia Simándi

Abstract

Introduction: Nowadays, providing the access to learning appears as an emphasized priority for every stage of life, due to the demographic changes, even near the place of residence or with the utilization of the possibilities of the new informational and communicational technologies, which bring new possibilities also in the dimension of learning between generations. Purpose: Intergenerational learning can also be defined as a mutual learning relationship and interaction between the young and the old. The starting point of the study is that the younger and older age groups can learn from each other in their free time, in a non-formal learning environment in the framework of study circles. This paper drafts some practical directives for planning and organizing intergenerational study circles in a non-formal learning environment. Methods: We intend to make a synthesis based on former research and literature - learning between generations, spending free time, learning at an old age, study circles - and following this, a methodological guide is going to be made for planning and organizing intergenerational study circles. Conclusions: Study circles can be seen as intergenerational learning possibilities - young and old people with different preliminary knowledge can make a profit from the experiences gained during joint work, and from the topics examined from different points of views. The younger and older generations can work together in a non-formal learning environment and there is an opportunity for common learning and knowledge sharing as well.