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Open access

Mana Baziboroun, Masomeh Bayani, Zahra Poormontaseri, Mehran Shokri and Tahmineh Biazar

Abstract

Received 08 November 2017 Accepted 15 February 2018 The incidence of community-acquired UTIs due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli isolates, has increased worldwide and is considered a great problem in the treatment of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli isolates in urine samples of outpatients in Babol, North of Iran. A total of 3 699 urine samples from outpatients referred to Yahyanejad Hospital, Babol, Iran, were collected during 15 months, from March 2016 to June 2017. The samples were processed for bacterial culture using conventional methods, while antimicrobial susceptibility testing for E. coli isolates was performed by the disc diffusion method. The prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli isolates were assessed by Double-Disc tests. Of 3699 tested sample, 201 samples showed the growth of pathogens and among them, 106 isolates (52/7%) were E. coli. The rate of ESBL producing E. coli isolates was 25/4%.The majority (81/5%) of the isolates were from females. High percent resistance was found against ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefixime and ciprofloxacin, ranging from 61-100%, while the highest percent susceptibility was seen to meropenem, piperacillin- tazobactam (100%), followed by nitrofurantoin and amikacin (91%). The high prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli isolates from outpatients calls for the need to aware of this increasing resistance between uropathogens and update bacterial susceptibility data and to set up our empirical therapy accordingly.

Open access

Fugen Gu, Jia Ning, Huimin Fan, Chunzhi Wu and Yi Wang

Abstract

Simvastatin is poorly bioavailable because it is practically insoluble in water and shows dissolution rate-limited absorption. Solubilizing effects of several β-cyclodextrin (βCD) derivatives such as HPβCD, SBEβCD and DMβCD on simvastatin in aqueous solution were investigated using the phase solubility technique. The solubility diagram of simvastatin with each βCD derivative could be classified as AL-type, indicating soluble complex formation of 1:1 stoichiometry. Among the above βCD derivatives DMβCD was found to be the ideal complexing agent for improving drug solubility. The simvastatin complex with DMβCD was prepared using the co-evaporation method and was then characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and in vitro dissolution. Dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies indicated that the simvastatin/DMβCD complex exhibited an increased dissolution rate, rapid absorption, and improved bioavailability in rats compared to free drug. Maximum plasma concentration (c max) and the time to reach it (t max) were 21.86 μg mL−1 and 1.4 h for the drug complex, 8.25 μg mL−1 and 3.0 h for free drug, respectively. Main pharmacokinetic parameters such as t max, c max were significantly different (p < 0.01) between the simvastatin complex and free drug. Bioavailability of the simvastatin complex relative to free drug was up to 167.0 %.

Open access

Jianhui Yang, Yu Ren, Zhong-Guan Lou, Xue Wan, Guo-Bin Weng and Dong Cen

Abstract

Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common urinary cancers. The present study aims to investigate whether Paeoniflorin (Pae) can exert inhibitory effects on BCa. The results showed that Pae inhibited proliferation of human BCa cell lines in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Pae and cisplatin (Cis) synergistically inhibited the growth of tumours in RT4-bearing mice. Pae treatment neutralized the body loss induced by Cis. Moreover, Pae induced apoptosis in RT4 cells and increased the activities of caspase3, caspase8 and caspase9. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3) level were decreased in Pae-treated RT4 cells and Pae-treated tumour-bearing mice. Furthermore, STAT3 transcriptional target B-cell lymphoma-2 was decreased in Pae-treated RT4 cells. Interestingly, Pae prevented translocation of STAT3 to the nucleus in RT4 cells. Collectively, Pae inhibits the growth of BCa, at least in part, via a STAT3 pathway.

Open access

Ewa Kedzierska, Lila Dabkowska, Tomasz Krzanowski, Ewa Gibula, Jolanta Orzelska-Gorka and Monika Wujec

Abstract

How to get a new drug to market? How much time does it take to go from the idea to implementation? In this study we followed the path drugs take from synthesis to introduction to the market. In doing so, articles in the PubMed and the Google Scholar database have been analyzed using the keywords: drug development, drug design, lead compound, preclinical trials, clinical trials. The available literature was subjectively selected due to its usefulness in the topic. Based on the obtained articles, we presented the stages that a would-be drug takes on the way from the idea to marketing. Herein, it is underlined that the process of creating new drugs is long, extremely labor-intensive, and involves many restrictions in the context of the use of animals, as well as humans

Open access

Malgorzata H.J. Sikorska-Jaroszynska, Maria Mielnik-Blaszczak, Dorota Krawczyk, Katarzyna Gromadzka-Blaszczak, Rafal Wrobel, Agnieszka Skawinska-Bednarczyk and Marta Kuraszko

Abstract

Dental anxiety is a very important factor affecting the efficacy of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental diseases, both in patients in the developmental age and in young adults. Anxiety is considered an emotional state with negative connotations. The aim of the study was to determine the level of dental anxiety in first year university students, the intent being to help to develop an individual treatment plan in this group of patients. The study involved 280 students including 230 females and 50 males. Of these, 122 patients were from the Medical University of Lublin, 79 from University of Life Sciences and 79 from University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska. The mean age of the study subjects was 21 years and 8 months ± 3,9 months. No differences in the level of dental anxiety between women and men were observed. The highest level of dental anxiety was observed among students of University of Life Sciences, while the lowest level was observed among students of the Medical University

Open access

Tania Shamim Rizvi, Abdul Latif Khan, Liaqat Ali, Narjis Al-Mawali, Fazal Mabood, Javid Hussain, Muhammad Adnan and Ahmed Al-Harrasi

Abstract

The present study investigates the potential role of medicinal plants Citrullus colocynthis and Tephrosia apollinea in ameliorating the oxidative stress developed during the generation of reactive oxygen species. Organic extracts of different organs (leaf, stem and root) of these medicinal plants obtained in n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water were assayed for radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, anti-lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. The total phenolic content (TPC) of both selected medicinal plants was also evaluated. The results indicated that extracts of T. apollinea leaf, stem and root have higher TPC compared to those of C. colocynthis. Similarly, the results of the present study revealed higher bioactivity of C. colocynthis than that of T. apollinea in various antioxidant assays. Various plant parts of each plant were also compared.

Open access

Maria-Viorica Ciocilteu, Andreea Gabriela Mocanu, Adriana Mocanu, Catalin Ducu, Oana Elena Nicolaescu, Valentin Costel Manda, Adina Turcu-Stiolica, Claudiu Nicolicescu, Razvan Melinte, Maria Balasoiu, Octavian Croitoru and Johny Neamtu

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to synthesize hydroxyapatite-ciprofloxacin composites using a chemical precipitation method and to evaluate the properties and in vitro release profile of the drug from the hydroxyapatite-ciprofloxacin composites. Composite characterization was achieved by FT-IR, XRD and DLS. Ciprofloxacin determination was accomplished by HPLC, resulting in good incorporation efficiency of the drug (18.13 %). The in vitro release study (Higuchi model C = K t 1/2 and Ritger-Peppas model, C = K t 0.6) showed a diffusion-controlled mechanism. The antibacterial activity showed that the bacterial growth inhibition zones were approximately equal for the synthesis composites and for the mechanical mixture on the Staphylococcus aureus germ.

The use of hydroxyapatite, which is a biocompatible, bioactive and osteoconductive material, with ciprofloxacin, which has good antibacterial activity in this composite, makes it suitable for the development of bone grafts. Furthermore, the synthesis process allows a slow local release of the drug.

Open access

Anastazja Boguszewska, Magdalena Wos, Adrian Jarzynski and Malgorzata Polz-Dacewicz

Abstract

Polyomaviruses are common viruses that induce various infections in many mammalian species, including humans. The best-known viruses of this kind are BKV and JCV. The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence of infection caused by JCV in a group of patients after kidney or bone marrow transplant, and to analyze JCV genetic diversity in post-transplantation recipients. The study group included 81 patients after kidney transplantation treated in the Independent Public Teaching Hospital No 4 in Lublin and a group of 24 patients after marrow transplantation from the Children's Clinical Hospital of Lublin. The research material included 105 DNA probes from urine samples that were tested via the PCR method for the presence of JCV genetic material. Amplification products were separated in agarose gel, positive PCR products were subjected to purification and the pure product was sent to sequencing. Pearson's chi-square test was used to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of JCV viruria and study group and gender. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. A JCV positive result was discovered in 27.6% of all samples. In the group of adults, 34.6% were positive, while in children, this was 3.4%. Among all patients, only 8 women were infected with the JC virus, while 21 men were. We saw that the incidence of infection caused by the JC virus increases with age. Moreover, JCV DNA is more frequently isolated from men than from women. JCV infections are also a more common cause of infections in patients after renal transplantation than in bone marrow transplant patients

Open access

Iryna Chukhray, Halyna Bilushchak, Lubov Kolyasa, Olha Tokar and Andrij Datsko

Abstract

On the basis of results of experimental evaluation by 88 doctors and 100 pharmacists, the availability of information for them on probiotics has been investigated; new sources of such information have been detected, experts’ attitude to new probiotics has been studied. In the course of administration or recommendation of probiotics, experts are, mainly, guided by standards of medical aid and by their own experience. The main favorable effects of probiotics on human organism, in respondents’ opinion, are the normalization of the content of intestinal microflora and the normalization of functioning of digestive tract of human, as well as antialergetic and immunomodeling action. It is found that the main indication for application of probiotics are the syndrome of irritation of intestine and associated with antibiotic diarrhea. The averaged estimation (in points) of medicines has been calculated according to the following parameters: effectiveness, safety, frequency of prescription. With this, the competence of the experts was taken into account. The results of the carried out experts’ estimation can be used for optimization of the system of choice of probiotics

Open access

A. A. Kotvitska and V. H. Kostiuk

Abstract

The aim of our analysis is the estimation of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) competitiveness level, calculation of capacity, share and saturation of studied segment of market that allow to improve the competitive strategies of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: According to the results of content-analysis of foreign and native economic literature, we elaborated the methodology of estimation of NSAID competitive positions that consists of six main stages. The offered model of estimation of competitiveness of the studied group of medicines is based on the construction of competition map of medicines on the example of non-selective NSAID as the largest group by the number of presented trade names (TN) using the calculation of market share of medicines for 2015-2016 and dynamics of its growth.

RESULTS: The results of NSAID TN distribution in groups according to the market share volume testify that only 8 TN of medicines among 74 are the leaders of market and 10 TN are characterized with strong competitive position. At the same time 51 NSAID TN are outsiders and 5 TN have weak competitive position.

The results of NSAID TN distribution in groups according to the change of their competitive position allow state that 16 TN among 74 have fast worsening competitive position, 43 TN belong to the group with worsening competitive position and only 5 TN has competitive position, characterized by fast improvement.

CONCLUSION: The analysis of position, occupied by NSAID TN in matrix, demonstrated that 8 TM of medicines are the leaders of the market. At the same time 51 medicines TN are outsiders. The results of research demonstrated that 59 NSAID TN are characterized with worsening and fast worsening competitive positions.