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The Knobe Effect From the Perspective of Normative Orders

Abstract

The characteristic asymmetry in the attribution of intentionality in causing side effects, known as the Knobe effect, is considered to be a stable model of human cognition. This article looks at whether the way of thinking and analysing one scenario may affect the other and whether the mutual relationship between the ways in which both scenarios are analysed may affect the stability of the Knobe effect. The theoretical analyses and empirical studies performed are based on a distinction between moral and non-moral normativity possibly affecting the judgments passed in both scenarios. Therefore, an essential role in judgments about the intentionality of causing a side effect could be played by normative competences responsible for distinguishing between normative orders.

Open access
Leon Petrażycki on Norms and Their Logical Study

Abstract

In this paper we discuss L. Petrażycki’s idea of norm as a normative relation and show its repercussions in two perspectives connected to each other, in the legal theory in the framework of which it was originally introduced and where its role was straightforward, and in logic where it played a shadowy role of a fresh idea which in his expectation would have been the core of the novel logical theories capable of modelling reasoning in law and morals. We pay attention to the scholarly environment in which Petrażycki has proposed those ideas and to the unlucky fate of his academic legacy which is now being rediscovered.

Open access
MRI Texture-Based Recognition of Dystrophy Phase in Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy Dogs. Elimination of Features that Evolve along with the Individual’s Growth

Abstract

The study investigates the possibility of applying texture analysis (TA) for testing Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) therapies. The work is based on the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) canine model, in which 3 phases of canine growth and/or dystrophy development are identified: the first phase (0–4 months of age), the second phase (from over 4 to 6 months), and the third phase (from over 6 months to death). Two differentiation problems are posed: (i) the first phase vs. the second phase and (ii) the second phase vs. the third phase. Textural features are derived from T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images. In total, 37 features provided by 8 different TA methods (statistical, filter-based, and model-based) have been tested. The work focuses on finding such textural features that evolve along with the dog’s growth. These features are indicated by means of statistical analyses and eliminated from further investigation, as they may disturb the correct assessment of response to treatment in dystrophy. The relative importance of each remaining feature is then assessed with the use of the Monte Carlo (MC) procedure. Furthermore, feature selection based on the MC procedure is employed to find the optimal subset of age-independent features. Finally, three classifiers are used for evaluating different sets of textural features: Adaptive Boosting (AB), back-propagation Neural Network (NN), and nonlinear Support Vector Machines (SVM). The best subsets of age-independent features ensure 80.0% and 78.5% of correctly identified phases of dystrophy progression, for the first (i) and second (ii) differentiation problem respectively.

Open access
On the Role of the Body in Christian Spirituality

Abstract

In his critique of the excessive influences of the personalistic philosophy on the theological construct that some of the most significant orthodox authors of the present are guided by, Jean‐Claude Larchet widely explains why the relation of the christian toward the body in the spiritual education of the more recent generations of the orthodox christians is vastly neglected. On another place he exposes a voluminous summary of the orthodox church tradition on the christian faith as a method of healing the passions, picturing the role of the traditional christian terms ascetism, athletics and agon (struggle) in the orthodox theology and advocating for the neccessity of their reafirmation in the christian upbringing of the modern people. The physical culture of the orthodox christians should be determined in the shape of explication of the christian endeavour as bodily discipline, considering the neccessary role of the body in bringing up the virtues, and also the importance of healing the body from the passions and other forms of attachment as the disorders of spiritual health.

Open access
One-Dimensional Sport Spiritual Crisis as a Cause of Degrading Sport to a One-Dimesional Phenomenon

Abstract

The paper analyzes spiritual stumbling of modern man which in addition to other general aspects of life has also led to sport degradation to only one dimesion ‐ the dimension of the result covering particular material interests of having power and being popular to which all other sport components including playing as the most honourable ingredient, which in terms of anthropology defines man as a being whose essential characteristic is playing, are inferior. Spiritual stumbling of modern man is a result of ratiocentrism (that is, his abandoning the concept of theocentrism) with dispair and loss of morality turning the complex body‐spirit bond into an instrument and the sport competition itself into an alienating form of achieving results at all costs. As a result, athletes themselves as main participants in competitions (either against other competitors or against themselves) have become an instrument‐tool for gaining profit. Spiritual stumbling have generated moral crisis and left sports and their participants without any human dimension of existence degrading them to a single physical dimension and its merciless and brutal exploitation.

Open access
Online Interactivity – A Shift towards E-textbook-based Medical Education

Abstract

Textbooks have played the leading role in academic education for centuries and their form has evolved, adapting to the needs of students, teachers and technological possibilities. Advances in technology have caused educators to look for new sources of knowledge development, which students could use inside and outside the classroom. Today’s sophisticated learning tools range from virtual environments to interactive multimedia resources, which can be called e-textbooks. Different types of new educational materials that go beyond printed books are now used to support the academic curriculum, with the most interesting ones exemplified in this article to show their value in medical and life sciences education. Certain interesting attempts by Polish publishers at applying technology to support both self-paced and tutor-paced student learning in the medical profession and related areas are presented. The data was collected through a review of literature, discussions with e-learning specialists and medical students, as well as an analysis of examples of good practices. The article also discusses the results of a countrywide survey on the use of e-textbooks to enhance medical education. The research investigates the targeted academic staff’s attitudes towards the use of e-textbooks, the limitations of their implementation, and the character of e-resources currently used by Polish higher education medical institutions.

Open access
The Orthodoxy and Sports

Abstract

The scientific contribution of this paper consists of an innovative approach to the issues of Orthodox faith and sport, which opens up a new creative area for theology itself, where sport also gets new opportunities. Given the known "affair" in almost all sports branches, which illustrate the state of "alarming helplessness", the contribution of faith in solving it is indisputable, especially in the way advocated in this research work. The primary goal is to extract from the plethora of theological literature those contents that can encourage the creative responsibility of all positive factors of sports events, from the athletes themselves, through their managers and club officials to the fans. Recognizing these problems and referring to theological sources as "clear content", without the bias of the members, with critical awareness, qualifies work to search and find adequate answers to the asked questions. The mere fact that a new research field has been opened, without the intention to make the last word on this, points to the scientific contribution of this paper.

Open access
Physical Culture Between Rationalism and Theoanthropocentrism

Abstract

Physical culture with the man in its centre has always been an integral part of social events and troubles in various times and ages. Regardless the need to adjust its theory and practice to the given requirements and social circumstances of the time it has always been stretched between rationalism and theanthropos‐centrism. Rationalism and its right wing the Enlightenment had formed deep furrows in the area of physical culture, (too) since the age of Pythagoras, Epicurus, Plato and later Origen and the Neoplatonists and Descartes' ''I think, therefore I am''. The great Njegoš made a clear judgement of the general effects of Rationalism in his work The Ray of the Microcosm: ''You, Pythagoras and you, Epicurus, ... You have degraded a being a man.'' Indeed, only a glimpse at today's events and the development of sport and physical exercise is enough to prove his words to be true. On the other hand, thenathropos‐centrism with its theory and practice bring back hope that not all is lost, when everything is lost (R.P. Nogo). Theanthroposcentrism or, God‐man centrism as it can be called, approaches man with Love and belief that physical exercises is divine food for the human being. And that the food is given to him so that he can master the good as gifted from the Creator, to stand firm, get strong and divinized. Therefore, we can say that Rationalism and Thanthropos‐centrism are two views of and two approaches to man (even) in modern times. Behind the first one there is pridewhereas behind the second one there isLove. It is up to man himself to choose his way.

Open access
Spirit and Body in the World of Modern Technology

Abstract

Spirit and body of the man living in the world of modern technology are discussed in the paper. The entire life of modern man is under the pressure of rapid and far‐reaching changes in economy, organisation, education, self‐image. The relations between the spirit and the body on the one side and illness and health, money, media, narcissism, morality and national identity on the other side are studied in the article. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between the world of modern science and technology and the quality of life focusing on the mind and body. The fact emphazised in the conclusion is that the nature of Western ‐ European civilization has been changing with predominant turning to the SELF, to the absolute interest of an invidual in terms of materialism. The result of this civilizational turn is jeopardizing the spirit and the body of modern man.

Open access
Statistical Methods in the Evaluation of Cardio-Respiratory Parameters in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors and Healthy Peers

Abstract

This study concerns the problem of late complications of antineo-plastic therapy. Reduced parameters of the cardiorespiratory system in childhood may have a tremendous impact on health. In order to assess the selected parameters, to evaluate physical endurance, and compare the results with those obtained for healthy children, a test was carried out on a treadmill, until 80% of maximum pulse rate was reached. To compare the differences between the treatment group and the control group, three approaches were used. The first one was the classical statistical inference, the second consisted in forming a multidimensional normal model and also involved modelling of the correlation between variables. The unstructured type of the working correlation matrix was chosen to obtain the results and correct standard errors. In the last approach, logistic regression was used to model the relationship between binary outcome and covariates, and to differentiate between the groups of patients on the basis of their cardiovascular parameters.

Open access