Single crystals of pure and L-threonine added tartaric acid (LT/TA), organic nonlinear optical (NLO) materials were grown from their respective aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The crystalline nature of the grown crystals was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). UV-Vis-NIR absorption and transmission spectra revealed that the lower cut-off wavelength was around 281 nm and the crystals exhibited high transmission over visible and near IR region. The presence of the functional groups such as O–H, C–H, C–O, C=O in the grown crystals was confirmed by FT-IR analysis. CHN analysis was carried out to confirm the presence of L-threonine in the grown crystals. Microhardness study on the crystals revealed that the hardness number Hv increased with the applied load. The growth pattern of the crystals were analyzed through etching analysis from which the etch patterns in the shape of ‘step-triangle’ were observed. The second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of pure and L-threonine doped tartaric acid crystals were confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.
Artur Wiatrowski, Michał Mazur, Agata Obstarczyk, Danuta Kaczmarek, Roman Pastuszek, Damian Wojcieszak, Marcin Grobelny and Małgorzata Kalisz
In this paper, comparative studies on the structural, surface, optical, mechanical and corrosion properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by continuous and sequential magnetron sputtering processes were presented. In case of continuous process, magnetron was continuously supplied with voltage for 90 min. In turn, in sequential process, the voltage was supplied for 1 s alternately with 1 s break, therefore, the total time of the process was extended to 180 min. The TiO2 thin films were crack free, exhibited good adherence to the substrate and the surface morphology was homogeneous. Structural analysis showed that there were no major differences in the microstructure between coatings deposited in continuous and sequential processes. Both films exhibited nanocrystalline anatase structure with crystallite sizes of ca. 21 nm. Deposited coatings had high transparency in the visible wavelength range. Significant differences were observed in porosity (lower for sequential process), scratch resistance (better for sequential process), mechanical performance, i.e. hardness:elastic modulus ratio (higher for sequential process) and corrosion resistance (better for sequential process).
G.W. Strzelecki, K. Nowakowska-Langier, R. Chodun, S. Okrasa, B. Wicher and K. Zdunek
The research on the influence of modulation frequency on the properties of films synthesized using a unique pulsed power supply combined with a standard unbalanced circular magnetron was conducted in the process of pulsed magnetron sputtering (PMS). It was shown that by using different levels of modulation, the composition of plasma (measured by optical emission spectroscopy, OES) as well as film growth rate and morphology (observed with scanning electron microscope, SEM), can be changed. The impact of modulation is related to the used materials and gases and can vary significantly. It was concluded that modulation frequency can greatly influence the synthesis of materials and can be used as an additional parameter in PMS. Specific relations between modulation frequency and synthesized material require further investigation.
R. Sabarish, N. Suriyanarayanan, J.M. Kalita, M.P. Sarma, G. Wary, Vipul Kheraj and Sampat G. Deshmukh
In this report, ternary semiconducting NixBi2−xS3(x = 0.2 M and 0.5 M) thin films were synthesized in situ for the first time by a chemical bath deposition technique at different bath temperatures (60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C). The effects of concentration and deposition temperature on the deposited films were studied by combining the results of structural, morphological, optical and electrical analyses. The growth of NixBi2−xS3 films with good crystalline nature and interconnected grain arrangement takes place due to increasing the concentration of Ni2+ ions in bismuth sulfide matrix. EDS result confirmed the stoichiometry of NixBi2−xS3 formation. Wettability test demonstrated that the surface of the film was hydrophilic in nature. The optical absorption spectra revealed that the bandgap Eg of the x = 0.5 M film deposited at 70 °C was about 1.36 eV. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the x = 0.5 M film deposited at 70 °C were studied under X-ray radiation and dark condition. An X-ray detection sensitivity analysis showed that the detection sensitivity is optimum when the bias voltage applied across the film is low (~0.9 V). These findings reveal that the film with x = 0.5 M deposited at 70 °C can be used as an efficient low cost X-ray sensor.
This article presents the results of an examination of the properties of thermal flame sprayed coatings produced by material in the form of four powders (two polymers: PA11 and PA12 CastoPlast, and two high purity: tin and aluminum) on the substrate of the unalloyed structural steel of S235JR grade. Investigations of coating properties are based on metallography tests (SEM and CLSM), measurement of microhardness (acc. to PN-EN ISO 6507-1:2007), anticorrosive (acc. to PN-EN ISO 9227:2017-06) and bend testing. Results demonstrate properties of flame sprayed coatings that are especially promising in the industrial applications where corrosion-resistant coating properties are required. Consequently, performed experiments show that the highest corrosion resistance is demonstrated by steel samples with a polyamide anti-corrosion system. Accelerated corrosion tests showed the lowest corrosion resistance of the tin coating system, however, they do not fully correspond to the corrosion processes in operating conditions.
Imran Khan, S. Kalainathan, M.I. Baig, Mohd Shkir, S. Alfaify, H.A. Ghramh and Mohd Anis
Present investigation has been started to perform the comparative study of pure and glycine doped KH2PO4 (KDP) single crystals grown by most commercial slow solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to determine their structural parameters. The linear optical studies of pure and glycine doped KDP crystal have been undertaken within 200 nm to 1100 nm wavelength range by means of UV-Vis studies. The enhancement in second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of glycine doped KDP crystal has been determined using a standard Kurtz-Perry powder test. The dielectric measurements have been carried out to explore the impact of glycine dopant on dielectric constant and dielectric loss of KDP crystal. The surface growth habitat and etch pit density of glycine doped KDP crystal have been evaluated using the results of microscopic etching studies. In light of obtained results the suitability of glycine doped KDP crystal for device applications has been discussed.
M. Bober, J. Jakubowski, A. Radziszewski and J. Senkara
The paper presents results of investigations of the microstructure and selected properties of improved composite coatings consisting mainly of nickel matrix reinforced by WC particles. The coatings were obtained by flame spraying of powders mixture on non-alloy steel substrates with following material remelting. Structural investigations were performed using both optical and electron microscopy. The distribution of microhardness and abrasion resistance of deposited coatings were also determined. The complex structure of coatings and resulting high wear withstand are the consequence of an intensive action of liquid matrix with dissolving tungsten carbide particles and formation of secondary phases.
H. Mokhtari, M. Benhaliliba, A. Boukhachem, M.S. Aida and Y.S. Ocak
This work highlights some physical properties related to the influence of aluminum, tin and copper incorporation on nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO:M; M:Al, Sn and Cu) thin films prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique (USP) on glass substrate at 350±5 °C. For the as-grown layers, M- to Zn-ratio was fixed at 1.5 %. The effects of metal doping on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that the as-prepared thin films crystallized in hexagonal structure with (0 0 2) preferred orientation. The surface topography of the films was performed by atomic force microscopy. AFM images revealed inhibition of grain growth due to the doping elements incorporation into ZnO matrix, which induced the formation of ZnO nanoparticles. Optical measurements showed a high transparency around 90 % in visible range. Some optical parameters, such as optical band gap, Urbach energy, refractive index, extinction coeffi-cient and dielectric constant were studied in terms of doping element. Particularly, dispersion of refractive index was discussed in terms of both Cauchy and single oscillator model proposed by Wemple and DiDomenico. Cauchy parameters and single oscillator energy E0 as well as dispersion energy Ed were calculated. Finally, electrical properties were investigated by means of electrical conductivity and Hall effect measurements. The measurements confirmed n type conductivity of the prepared thin films and a good agreement between the resistivity values and the oxidation number of doping element. The main aim of this work was the selection of the best candidate for doping ZnO for optoelectronics applications. The comparative study of M doped ZnO (M:Al, Sn and Cu) was performed. High rectifying efficiency of the Al/n-ZnO/p-Si/Al device was achieved and non-ideal behavior was revealed with n > 4.
M. Supernak-Marczewska, A. Ossowska, P. Strąkowska and A. Zieliński
The surface condition of an implant has a significant impact on response occurring at the implant-biosystem border. The knowledge of physical-chemical and biological processes allows for targeted modification of biomaterials to induce a specified response of a tissue. The present research was aimed at development of technology composing of obtaining the nanotube oxide layers on a porous titanium alloy Ti13Nb13Zr, followed by the deposition of phosphate coating. The porous substrate (porosity about 50%) was prepared by a selective laser melting of the Ti13Nb13Zr powder with the SLM Realizer 100 equipment. The nanotubular oxide layers were fabricated by electrochemical oxidation in H3PO4 + 0.3% HF mixture for 30 min. at a constant voltage of 20V. The calcium phosphate coatings were formed by the electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD). The presence of nanotubular oxide layers with their internal diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm was observed by SEM (JEOL JSM-7600F). The nanotubes have dimensions that facilitated the deposition of hydroxyapatite.
The growth of AlN layers on glass substrates using magnetron sputtering method was performed and the grown layers were subjected to optical measurements. Transmission spectra of the layers grown at different content of N2 in the atmosphere were obtained. The transmission spectra as well as energy gap depended on N2 content. The annealing of the layers in air led to transmission changes and influenced energy gap and refractive index values.