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M. Fedorová, R. Nemcová, D. Mudroňová, E. Styková, M. Brudňáková and K. Reiffová

Abstract

This study investigated a possible relationship between exopolysaccharides (EPS) production and the resistance to bile salts and low pH in intestinal strains of Lactobacillus reuteri. The strains displayed a mucoid phenotype, when grown in the presence of 10 % sucrose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed strands of exopolysaccharide linking neighbouring cells. The strains (except L. reuteri B1/1) produced EPS in the range from 15.80 to 650.70 mg.l−1. The strains were tested for tolerance to bile salts (0.15; 0.3 %) and low pH (1.5—2.0—2.5—3.0). The survival rate, after the treatment with artificial gastric and intestinal juices, was determined by flow cytometric analysis. The strains of L. reuteri that produced 121—650 mg.l−1 of EPS showed a significantly higher tolerance (P < 0.001) to the gastric juice at pH 3 and 2.5, throughout the entire exposure time, in comparison to the strains that produced less than 20 mg.l−1 of EPS. L. reuteri L26, with the highest production of EPS, exhibited the highest survival rate (60 %) at pH 2 after the 120 minutes of in-cubation and was able to tolerate pH 1.5 for 30 minutes. Higher production of EPS significantly (P < 0.001) increased the strains’ tolerance against the intestinal juice in the presence of 0.15 and 0.3 % bile salts and was time dependent. L. reuteri L26 showed the highest tolerance (P < 0.001) against 0.3 % bile salts. This investigation revealed a positive correlation between the EPS production and the resistance of intestinal L. reuteri to the stress conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

Open access

R. A. Ajadi, J. L. Sanni and E. L. Sobayo

Abstract

This study compares the coxofemoral parameters used for the detection of hip dysplasia in humans with Norberg angles in Boerboel dogs. Twenty adult Boerboel dogs of both sexes (mean weight: 54.0 ± 7.54 kg) were used. They were premedicated with Xylazine (0.5 mg.kg−1) and induced with a propofol (4 mg.kg−1) injection. Extended antero-posterior radiographs of the hip were obtained with a digital X-ray machine. Linear Femoral Overlap (LFO), Norberg Angle (NA), Sourcil Sector Angle (SSA), Center Edge Angle (CEA) and Acetabular Index Angle (AIA) were determined. The inter- and intra-observer variability were calculated from inter- and intra- class correlation coefficient using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Fischer’s exact test was used to define the statistically significant difference in measurements between sexes and hip dysplasia status. A significant difference was set at P < 0.05. The intra-observer agreement was high for NA and CEA, moderate for AIA, but low for SSA and LFO, while inter-observer agreement was high for NA and CEA, moderate for LFO and AIA, but very low for SSA. There was no significant (P < 0.05) difference in the measured parameters between male and female Boerboels, however, NA and CEA were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in Boerboels with hip dysplasia than those with normal hips. The CEA does not have advantage over NA for radiographic screening of dogs with hip dysplasia.

Open access

Ismet Kalkanov, Ivan Dinev and Ivan Zarkov

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to report the primary gross and microscopic lesions, as well as etiological agents of field cases of pneumoenteritis in neonate and juvenile calves. The research was done with 370 calves from 6 cattle farms in 4 regions of the country. The age of the animals was from 24 hours to 25 days. Clinical and epidemiological studies were carried out with newborn and growing calves in all farms. For rapid antigenic and viral detection of pathogens, Rainbow calf scour 5 BIO K 306 Detection of Rota, Corona, E.coli F5, Crypto and Clostridium perf. in bovine stool (BIOX Diagnostics, Belgium), and Monoclonal Antibody anti-bovine Coronavirus FITC conjugated) 0,5 ml (20X), BIO 023, (BIOX Diagnostics, Belgium) were used. Eighteen carcasses of calves with signs of pneumoenteritis syndrome (PES) were submitted to gross anatomy and histopathological studies. Bovine coronavirus (BСoV) was the main etiological agent involved in calf pneumoenteritis. The macro- and micro lesions in the lung and the ileum of calves affected by PES are relevant with regard to the differential diagnosis of the syndrome and its differentiation from respiratory (IBR, BVD, BRSV, M. haemolytica etc.) and intestinal (Cryptosporidium parvum, bovine rotaviruses, bovine coronaviruses and Escherichia coli K99 (F5) diseases in this category of animals.

Open access

Stephania Miranda, Maria Fernanda De Mello Costa, Juliana Jeunon Senna, João Castañon Frapoint, Nayro Xavier De Alencar and Daniel Augusto Barroso Lessa

Abstract

Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous biological product harvested by consecutive centrifugations of whole blood and separation of plasma in a stepwise protocol. PRP has been successfully used to stimulate healing in orthopedic and dermatological conditions, both in humans and animals. The principle is the fact that α- granules inside platelets contain a high concentration of growth factors, that once released can interfere with cellular communication and speed up healing. Standardization of PRP requires establishing a gold standard for the preparation and evaluation of the product, especially considering that platelet concentration and, therefore, growth factor concentration, might vary due to a number of variables. Factors such as age, gender, race or breed, and immune status of the patient might interfere with PRP quality and with treatment results, although little is known about such interferences. This research investigated the effect of breed/species and gender in platelet concentration in autologous PRP from horses and mules. The results demonstrate that Quarter Horses provided PRP with the greatest amount of platelets, although mules had a higher concentration percentages in relation to the initial platelet counts.

Open access

Emir Mujić, Halil Omanović, Javier Mateo, Nermin Pračić, Husein Vilić, Refik Šahinović, Drago Nedić, Francisco Javier Giráldez, Jose Manuel Lorenzo and Matjaž Červek

Abstract

This research is aimed at determining the impact of supplementing extensively reared lambs with a limited amount of flax seed enriched-concentrate on the fatty acid profile of the lamb meat (omental fat depot). A total of 96 60-day old Pramenka breed lambs (23.85±3.98 kg live body weight; 60±10 days of age; 42 males and 54 females) raised on pasture with their dams were randomly divided in three experimental groups: control (CON) or extensive rearing group, which did not receive any supplementary feed; concentrate (CC) group, receiving 300 g of a conventional commercial concentrate feed per animal daily, and concentrate-flax seed (CC-FS) group, receiving 300 g/day of the concentrate supplemented with 5% of flax seed. After 60 days of experimental period, 10 lambs were selected (5 males and 5 females) from each group and slaughtered. Omental fat samples were taken and analyzed to determine their fatty acid profile. Significant (P>0.05) differences in the fatty acid profile between CON and CC groups were small. However, enrichment of the concentrate with 5% flax seed increased the percentages of PUFA and n-3 PUFA when compared to both CON and CC groups and thus slightly improved the nutritional characteristics of the omental fat. The effect of sex on the fatty acid profile was only observed for C20:4 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 (P < 0.05).

Open access

Vahide Payamnoor, Razieh Jafari Hajati and Negar Khodadai

Abstract

To determine the effect of coconut extract on callogenesis of Betula pendula, Roth stem barks were cultured in NT (Nagata and Takebe) basic culture media in two individual experiments: i) cultivation explant in different treatments of coconut extracts combined with 1 mg l−1 2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and ii) callogenesis in NT media containing 1.5 mg l−1 2,4-D and 0.5 mg l−1 BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and then cultivation under the first experiment treatments. The first experiment demonstrated that not all concentrations of coconut extracts lead to callus induction individually, but callus induction increased 84% in a culture containing 5% coconut extract plus 1 mg l−1 2, 4-D. Based on the results of the second experiment, this treatment also significantly increased the wet and dry weights of the produced calluses. The possibility of increasing the betulinic acid and betulin by ultrasound was also studied. Samples cultivated in the selected culture medium were exposed to ultrasound waves in two forms of 1) one exposure and 2) twice exposure (repetition with 24 hr interval) in steps of 20, 60, 100, and 160 sec, and one treatment as the control. Betulin and the betulinic acid amount were determined using HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography). The maximum betulinic acid and betulin were obtained in 100 sec in once exposure (2.3 mg g−1 DW) and 160 sec in the twice exposure (0.75 mg g−1 DW) to ultrasound. The results showed that betulinic acid content was more than betulin.

Open access

R. Szabóová, Z. Faixová, Z. Maková and E. Piešová

Abstract

The mucus layer of the intestinal tract plays an important role of forming the front line of innate host defense. Recent studies have suggested that the involvement of feeding natural additives on protection/prevention/promotion of mucus production in the intestinal environment is beneficial. The goblet cells continually produce mucins for the retention of the mucus barrier under physiological conditions, but different factors (e. g. microorganisms, microbial toxins, viruses, cytokines, and enzymes) can have profound effects on the integrity of the intestinal epithelium covered by a protective mucus. The intestinal mucus forms enterocytes covered by transmembrane mucins and goblet cells produce by the secreted gel-forming mucins (MUC2). The mucus is organized in a single unattached mucus layer in the small intestine and in two mucus layers (inner, outer) in the colon. The main part of the review evaluates the effects of natural additives/substances supplementation to stimulate increased expression of MUC2 mucin in the intestine of animals.

Open access

A. Balicka, M. Lapšanská, M. Halán and A. Trbolová

Abstract

Thelaziosis is a parasitic disease of the eye that has become more common in Europe over the last twenty years. It is caused by a nematode, order Spirurida, family Thelaziidae. The transmission of this parasite occurs by the dipteran flies. Thelazia callipaeda occurs in the conjunctival sac, under the third eyelid or in the lacrimal ducts, causing blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, keratitis and sometimes corneal ulceration. Thelaziosis is a zoonotic disease. It occurs in humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Between 2016 and 2018 three cases of canine ocular thelaziosis occurred in dogs admitted to the Small Animals Clinic in Kosice, Slovakia. In all cases, the systemic and local treatments were administered. The parasites were removed from the conjunctival sac. The identification of Thelazia callipaeda was performed by microscopic examinations.

Open access

Vojislava Bursić, Gorica Vuković, Marina Đukić, Aleksandra Petrović, Magdalena Cara, Dušan Marinković and Rada Đurović-Pejčev

Summary

During 2018 a total of 42 sour cherry samples were collected and analysed for pesticide residues by LCMS/MS with the carbofuran–D3 and acetamiprid-D3 as internal standards. The study showed that 42.86% of the analysed samples contained pesticide residues. In percentage terms, it seems to be high, but most of the detections were below the recommended MRL values, which is encouraging. The analysis indicated that three of the analysed sour cherry samples (7.14%) contained pesticide residues above the MRLs (propiconazole, methomyl, dimethoate and prochloraz). In spite of the low concentrations, ten samples contained multiple detections, i.e. 55.56% of the analysed samples contained more than one pesticide residue.

Open access

Vladimir Milovanović, Ljiljana Dimitrijević, Vladimir Petrušić, Jasminka Kadrić, Rajna Minić and Irena Živković

Abstract

During time, both professionals and general public became aware of the importance of animal welfare. This term not only covers endangered wild animal species, animals used in food industry, pets and experimental animals, but also animals used in production of biologics. The implementation of the 3R concept (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) is especially important in this type of production. In this article, we describe for the first time the low dose, low volume and multi-site immunization protocol, as well as appropriate ELISA we developed for production of European anti-viper (V. ammodytes, long horned) antivenom in horses, which can help to significantly improve the welfare of the used animals.