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The psychometric properties of the Disease Perception Questionnaire

Abstract

This article describes the psychometric properties of the Disease Perception Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz Obrazu Choroby, KOCh, in Polish). An original version of KOCh consisting of 99 items was used to survey a group of 161 subjects aged 25 to 85 years. On the basis of factor analysis, four factors (scales) were identified which pointed to the subjects’ different perceptions of their disease: (1) Disease as a Threat, (2) Disease as a Weakness, (3) Disease as a Task, and (4) Disease as a Benefit. Items with the lowest factor loadings and the lowest factor specificity indexes were rejected. The factors identified explained 38% of the total variance. The final version of the KOCh questionnaire consisted of 57 items. The coefficients of reliability for the individual factors were Cronbach’s alpha = 0.94 for Disease as a Threat, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 for Disease as a Weakness, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84 for Disease as a Task, and Cronbach’s alpha = 0.85 for Disease as a Benefit

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A report from XIX Schizophrenia Forum Conference in Warsaw

Abstract

On 10-11th March in Warsaw, in the Conference Center Muranow, there was held a scientific conference “Schizophrenia-Forum”, organized for the nineteenth time. In this edition, particular attention was paid to educational aspects, by virtue of the fact that among the participants of the Conference there was a large number of young physicians specializing in psychiatry.

The formula of the two-day Conference based on the experts’ debates in a particular way affected the participants, so the conference was very interesting, it enabled the exchange of experiences and reflections on the problems of schizophrenia. The conference was attended by leading scientists and clinicians, for example: Marek Jarema, Janusz Rybakowski, Andrzej Czernikiewicz, Jerzy Samochowiec, Dominika Dudek and others, which is why it allowed to enrich the knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of psychotic disorders and good presentation of mature clinical thinking. The organizer of the Conference was the Foundation III Department of Psychiatry, “Syntonia” and the guest of honor was Dr. Peter Falkai - Head of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich. The lecture by Professor Falkaia entitled Schizophrenia treatment guidelines, at a plenary lecture, was presented in English, translated simultaneously, and was divided into parts: the characteristics of schizophrenia, guidelines for pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia, pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia - states of acute pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia - long-term treatment, side effects of long-term pharmacotherapy and conclusions. After a two-day Conference the hugely popular workshop sessions took place. They were addressed to physicians during specialization. All workshop sessions were very popular, as well as the entire conference, which became a forum for the exchange of information, ideas and experiences, sometimes intriguing, inspiring and innovative but never blank. At the end of the Conference the certificates were distributed and there was the opportunity for guests - visiting the permanent exhibition “1000 years of history of Polish Jews,” Polin, located at the Conference Centre Muranow. XIX Conference on Schizophrenia Forum 2016 was an interesting event cognitively and it maintained a high level of scientific and substantive jurisdiction important events in Polish psychiatry.

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Social competence and the need for approval and life satisfaction of women with excess body weight and women of normal weight- preliminary report

Abstract

The purpose of the present study is to examine the life satisfaction levels in two groups of women - with excess body weight and normal weight and the relationship between life satisfaction and the level of social competences The study involved 70 women (35 with excess body weight and 35 with normal weight). The Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire and Social Approval Questionnaire were used in the study. The study revealed no significant differences in terms of overall life satisfaction among women with excess weight and normal weight and a number of other relationships between the variables (like the importance of the need for social approval for the assessment of life satisfaction in those who have excess body weight).

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Value preferences in individuals with low and high self-esteem

Abstract

The basic purpose of this article is to compare how people with low and high self-esteem rated particular values. Additionally, the authors look at gender differences concerning the attitudes toward certain values.

The study involved 268 individuals aged 19-24 (M= 21.71, SD= 1.54). The participants were surveyed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) and the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). The results were considered significant at p<0.05. The findings demonstrated that people with lower self-esteem had higher opinion of values like Conformity, Pleasure, and Comfortable Life as well as some Instrumental Values (Self-Control and Politeness), when compared against the individuals with higher self-esteem. On the other hand, they were found to value Courage. There were no differences concerning the way individuals with high and low self-esteem rated Social Recognition, A Sense of Accomplishment and Self-Respect.

Also, the authors noticed that men were more likely to appreciate Hedonistic and Intellectual values, while women attached greater significance to Relational values. There were no gender differences concerning the rating of Aesthetic and Subjective values.

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Adriamycin - efficacy and possible adverse effects

Abstract

Adriamycin (doxorubicin) is a chemical substance in the anthracycline class with a wide range of applications in oncology and hematology. The mechanism of action of Adriamycin is related to formation of irregular bonds between nucleobases of DNA and inhibition of key enzymes of DNA synthesis - topoisomerase I and II as well as to formation of free radicals damaging DNA.

A major limitation in the drug use is associated with its adverse effects such as cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity.

The mechanism of myocardial injury by Adriamycin is linked to an increase in oxidative stress associated with impaired mitochondrial function and structure.

Cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is classified as: acute, chronic or late (delayed).

Hepatotoxicity of Adriamycin as a damage of the liver is associated with a dysfunction of this organ. Adriamycin studies have shown increased level of transaminase present in 40% of patients treated with Adriamycin. The state was transient and asymptomatic, returning to the initial level even when treatment continued.

Knowledge of cancer diseases contributed to a successive creation of two improved forms of Adriamycin (doxorubicin) – nonpegylated and pegylated formulas of the drug.

The mechanism of anticancer effects of liposomal Adriamycin is similar to the mechanism of conventional Adriamycin, but placement of the molecules of active substance in liposomes has significant influence on the distribution of the drug.

In order to increase the distribution of the drug, a special form of liposomal Adriamycin has been created by covering the surface of the liposomes with a hydrophilic polymer - (MPEG). This process, known as pegylation, decreases the interactions between the lipid bilayer membrane and the plasma components. Pegylated form of the drug is associated with a higher incidence of acute complications.

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The case of inorganic hypersomnia treated with light therapy in the course of schizoaffective disorder

Abstract

According to ICD 10, nonorganic hypersomnia is defined as “a condition of either excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep attacks (not accounted for by an inadequate amount of sleep) or prolonged transition to the fully aroused state upon awakening. When no definite evidence of organic etiology can be found, this condition is usually associated with mental disorders”. The severe hypersomnia in the course of schizoaffective disorder is rather a rare phenomenon. The paper presents the case of 41-year-old female patient with severe hypersomnia during the course of the schizoaffective disorder. The course of hypersomnia was severe. The patient slept constantly day and night and was awoken by her family for about three-hour period of time. The duration of hypersomnia was about one year until the onset of treatment. The patient was successfully treated with light therapy that caused gradual resolution of the symptoms of hypersomnia. The patient is also treated as prior to the onset of hypersomnia with antipsychotics and the mood stabilizers for schizoaffective disorder. Since that time there were six-year-period of follow up when the patient was free of any symptoms of hypersomnia.

Open access
Extraordinary system of delusions and the social functioning - a case study

Abstract

Schizophrenic psychoses are a heterogeneous group of diseases that affect about 1% of the world’s population. The first symptoms of the disease usually manifest between ages 20 and 30. The diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and its subtypes are characterized in detail in ICD-10. Diagnosis is based primarily on the presence of productive symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations occurring for at least one month which cannot be explained in another way. Schizophrenia is a disease which largely affects social functioning of patients, such as occupational performance, family life, interpersonal relationships or housing situation. Apart from the sociological aspect, social lives of schizophrenia sufferers are significantly impoverished due to cognitive impairment associated with improper functioning of NMDA receptors. The study describes a case of a patient suffering from paranoid schizophrenia which sheds light on the social functioning of this group of patients.

Open access
The history of hysteria and what’s next…

Abstract

From the ancient times up till now hysteria has been a mysterious and intriguing issue. The authors of this article using mainly the work of Etienne Trillat of the same title, present the most important facts from the history of hysteria. Our work shows how notions of hysteria known initially as uterine dyspnoea, which was the term used by Hippocrates in the seventh tome of his “Collected Works” evolved step by step. At the end of 1st century AD a newcomer to Rome, Soranus of Ephesus, as an experienced anatomist in his “Treatise on midwifery and the diseases of women” moved away from the old ideas of Plato and Hippocrates equating uterus to an animal. How did views on hysteria develop throughout Middle Ages, Renaissance or World Wars period? In this article the authors are trying to determine the nature of hysteria as well as what remained from hysteria in the contemporary times, depicting hysteria’s elusiveness as a disease, many difficulties with its definition and connection with many shocking events in history of mankind. From the ancient sages, through Kramer, Sprenger, Wier, Harvey, Willis, Sydenham, Blackmore up until Mesmer, Freud and many others. From hysteric witches, beings suffering from vapors, through sensitive, fragile and musing women up until mythomaniacs, nymphomaniacs and what we define today as histrionic personality disorder. In the words of French neurologist and a creator of psychiatry – Charcot – hysteria existed forever, everywhere and all-time. Why did it vanish though? Authors of this article will address this problem in the final part, trying to determine the cause.

Open access
Hospitalization of a child in the Neonatal Intensive Care – parents’ experiences

Abstract

Introduction. Significant progress in the perinatal and intensive care therapy resulted in a meaningful increase of survival of extremely immature, and burdened with severe diseases neonates. Although infants are the patients of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the needs of their parents should also be noticed and realized. The aim of the study was the analysis of the parents’ experiences of children hospitalized in the NICU.

Material. The research material comprises 39 written contributions of parents of children hospitalized in the NICU.

Method. A qualitative analysis of the text was used. Quotes of parents were classified in three categories: emotions, thoughts and support.

Results. Fear, happiness, joy, uncertainty, stress and shock are the most frequently emotions appearing in the parents’ reports. The most frequently mentioned areas of cognitive reactions of parents include: realization of child’s mortality, realizing problems of the premature birth, search for the guilty, and the reformulation of looking at the world. Parents often described support they received, but also pointed to the areas where support lacked.

Conclusion:

  1. As a result of intense emotions, both positive and negative tint that parents experience at birth of a premature or sick child, multi-disciplinary care is necessary in order to reduce the negative effects of experienced emotions.
  2. Support, including information support for parents of critically ill newborns is a key skill in the practice of doctors taking care of children hospitalized in NICU.
  3. Psychological support is an essential element of the holistic care of the neonate’s family.

Open access