Pavlina L. Gidikova, Gergana N. Sandeva, Kamelia H. Haracherova and Rositsa V. Sandeva
A person's weight depends on major factors like genetics, diet, and physical activity. Physical activity in adults is defined mainly by workload – light, moderate or heavy. The aim was to explore associations between weight and chronic non-infectious diseases in workers with different physical activity. The subjects included in the study were 224 male and 249 female employees, divided by workload based on their job description. Body mass index (BMI) and disease incidence were calculated, and statistical analysis was performed. The highest percentage of overweight and obese subjects was found in men with light workload. The mean BMI for men (27.434.85) was significantly higher than that for women (25.875.06). Analysis of obesity-associated diseases showed that in workers with higher BMI there was a higher incidence of endocrine disorders, musculoskeletal and related neurological diseases. Diseases of the circulatory system were highly prevalent in both overweight/obese and underweight employees. In conclusion, physical activity at work contributes to changes in BMI in the working population. Obesity-associated circulatory, endocrine and musculoskeletal diseases were highly prevalent in the groups with higher BMI. The prevalence in employees without diseases was in inverse relation to BMI.
Sofiya L. Ivanova, Dimitrichka J. Dimitrova, Metodi H. Petrichev, Liliana I. Parvanova, Georgi Sl. Kalistratov and Lubomir T. Vezenkov
The pharmacokinetics of zinc was investigated in broiler chickens after single crop intubation of 50 mg/kg 5% zinc aspartate suspension in 2% carboxymethyl cellulose solution. Blood serum zinc concentrations were assayed on a biochemical analyzer. The pharmacokinetics of zinc was evaluated using two approaches – compartmental method and non-compartmental analysis using pharmacokinetic software (TopFit, v. 2.0). After the intraingluvial application, zinc was rapidly absorbed (t1/2abs. =0.1040.02 h) by the alimentary system of birds attaining Cmax of 63.603.94 mol/ml by hour 0.77 (compartmental method) and Cmax =69.274.35 mol/ml by hour 0.92 h (non-compartmental method). It is characterized with a long biological half-life (t1/2) of 13.821.63 h (compartmental analysis) and 15.961.73 h (non-compartmental analysis) and long mean residence times (MRT) 20.122.35 h and 23.002.50 h, respectively. The distribution in blood and extracellular fluid was good as seen from Vd(area) values 0.770.05 l/kg (compartmental analysis) and 0.650.05 l/kg (non-compartmental analysis).
Guergana Petrova, Penka I. Perenovska, Dimitrinka Miteva, Radost T. Kabakchieva, Ognyan G. Brankov and Rosen S. Drebov
Pneumonia is an inflammatory lung disorder characterized by consolidation due to presence of exudates in the alveolar spaces. Most pneumonias can be effectively treated with appropriate oral antibiotics, with intravenous antibiotics being reserved for those with severe infections. We present two cases of girls admitted in our clinic with pneumonia where our conventional therapy was not sufficient. Case 1: A 15-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis, with left lobular pneumonia, for which an aggressive conservative treatment was initiated. After significant improvement, sudden detorioration and pneumothorax of the left lung occurred. She was transferred to the surgical department for intervention. Due to failure to respond to initial drainage she underwent thoracotomy and resection of the left lower lobe of the lung. The histology result confirmed gangrene. Case 2: A four-year old girl was treated for pneumonia in the right lung with aggressive intravenous antibiotic. After temporary improvement sudden deterioration was observed. The patient was transferred to the surgery department, where pulmonary gangrene was confirmed. After the lower lobe of the right lung was resected, she was discharged in good health. The careful follow up, accurate diagnosis and correct medication choice are crucial for reducing the complications of “common” pneumonia.
Tanja P. Kuneva, Diana B. Apostolova, Zlatka B. Stoyneva, Aneta B. Ivanova, Vladimira V. Boyadzhieva and Kristina A. Yosifcheva
A clinical observation of 15 workers exposed to lead, engaged in recycling of lead accumulators, was carried out. The exposition to lead aerosols varied from 2 months to 14 years. High levels of lead absorption and excretion after application of antidote therapy were found in all workers followed up. There were no manifestclinical signs and symptoms in 7 workers whom we suspected to be lead carriers. Anemia was diagnosed in 8 of the investigated persons. Severe form of intoxication, including paresis of both radial nerves, was established in one worker. Subacute lead poisoning, presenting with lead colic, anemia, toxic hepatitis and toxic polyneuropathy, was diagnosed in three persons with only several months of intensive lead exposure. Association between lead exposure, metal absorption and clinical symptoms in investigated persons were discussed.
Nevena V. Tzvetanova, Joana I. Simeonova and Yanka I. Tzvetanova
The aim of this study was to identify risk sexual behavior in students aged 12-18 in Veliko Turnovo region. A cross-sectional study was carried-out in 2014. Three hundred and ten students attending seven schools filled in a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included 48 questions, sixteen of which collected information about sexual behaviour, regarding contraception, casual sex with different partners, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), hygiene after sex, etc. The data were processed with SPSS.v.19. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were applied. Over 50% of the students reported being sexually active, most of them since they turned 16. Almost half of the respondents had had casual sexual partners and 46 percent had had sex within a week after initiation of a new relationship. Less than one third of the students reported safe sex behaviour. Seven percent of the students had a history of STDs, and one in six did not practice proper hygiene after sex. Identification of all aspects of risk sexual behavior in students aged 12-18 provides an opportunity to study the problem systematically and comprehensively. Planning and implementation of effective health education programs in schools require the application of an integrated approach with the participation of students, teachers, parents, health professionals and policy makers.
Violeta S. Rilcheva, Nina P. Ayvazova, Danail I. Martinov, Cvetomir I. Ivanov and Emiliana I. Konova
The aim of the study was to explore the impact of oxidative stress on frozen seminal plasma in fertile and infertile men by examining the total antioxidant capacity. Patients: Infertile patients from male infertility clinic with various diagnoses and fertile men. Design: Seminal plasma from proven fertile men [n=50] and infertile patients [n=50] were examined for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level, semen parameters such as morphology, motility and concentration, and DNA integrity test. Interventions: Seminal plasma TAC measurement by luminometric assay using the TAC assay kit, semen analysis parameters, DNA integrity test. Fertile men showed higher TAC values (median and SD): 1201µM (SD±548), as compared with the infertile patients: 831μM (SD±343). The result from sperm morphology of fertile patients showed a mean percentage of 4.8 % (SD±1.68) whereas the percentage in the infertile group was 2.68% (SD ±1.68). The same group of samples, analyzed for DNA damage showed a mean of DFI 10.38% (SD±5.17%) in fertile men and a mean of DFI 17.22% (SD±7.22%) in infertile men. Total antioxidant capacity of the seminal plasma as measured by the luminоmetric assay is a reliable and simple test for diagnosing and management of male infertility.
Tropical fresh water stingrays have become quite popular among amateur and professional aquarists due to their attractive appearance. However, the species may have a high life-threatening potential. Stingray intoxication is rare in Eastern Europe and there is no specific antivenin available. We present the first case of “rayism” - envenomation caused by sp. Reticulatus in Eastern Europe. The patient was a 63-year-old amateur aquarist, with a history of ischaemic heart disease and allergy to NSAIDs. He got stung while cleaning a stingray fish tank and was admitted to the department of clinical toxicology 40min following the incident, with symptoms of moderate intoxication: accentuated local toxic syndrome - mild bleeding at the sting site, worsening and excruciating (8- 9/10) pain in his left hand and forearm, feeling of “burning” in the arm, accompanying toxic symptoms - vertigo, malaise, fatigue, sweating and tightness in the chest. No antitoxin was available and the treatment plan included local aseptic treatment of the wound, anti- tetanus prophylaxis, fluoroquinolone-type antibiotic prophylaxis, antihistamine, a corticosteroid and i.v. infusions. Thermal therapy (immersing the arm in hot, 45℃ tap water) completely reduced the pain within 5 hours. Full recovery was achieved on the 3rd day after the exposure. A toxicologist should react adequately in the setting of a rare intoxication even when a specific antidote is not available. Thermal therapy proved to be effective in the case of stingray envenomation.
Savelina L. Popovska, Ivan N. Ivanov and Akishi Ooi
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer which is clinically negative for expression of steroid hormones and HER2 protein. According to DNA microarray profiling, breast cancer was divided into several molecular subgroups, including Luminal A and Luminal B; HER2 overexpressing; normal breast- like and basal-like subtype. TNBC comprises tumours that express heterogeneous molecular and immunohistochemical phenotype, thus determining different prognosis. The majority of TNBC carry the “basal-like” molecular profile on gene expression arrays. Basal-like carcinomas of the breast associated with poor prognosis often correlate with expression of Caveolin-1. The study aimed to investigate the expression of caveolin-1 in the tumour cells and in the stromal component of the tumour among the group of TNBC and compare it to the expression of caveolin-1 in a control group with non-TN breast cancer. Whole tissue sections were used. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue materials from 101 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during the period 2004-2007 were investigated in a retrospective study. A multistep approach was used to separate the different subtypes of breast cancer. During the first step the breast tumours were separated according to their ER, PgR, HER 2 and proliferative activity, using the Ki-67 index. The triple- negative tumours were additionally tested for EGFR and CK5/6. The basal breast cancer group was finally subdivided into basal and baso-luminal according to the type of expression of basal cytokeratins. caveolin-1 expression was examined in the tumour parenchyma and stroma. According to our results, caveolin-1 expression in breast cancer was significantly associated with basal biomarkers expression (basal and baso-luminal type of BC) χ2= 33.4; p<0.0001. Caveolin-1 can be used as a potential marker to examine the presence of basal phenotype in breast cancer.
Joana I. Simeonova, Angelika S. Velkova, Silvia B. Tsvetkova, Penka S. Kostadinova, Petkana A. Hristova and Mariela S. Kamburova
The aim of the study was to identify socioeconomic and psychological determinants of self-rated health among ambulatory and hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study was carried-out in 2014. Two hundred and twelve patients over 44 years of age filled in a self-administrated questionnaire. Self-rated health (SRH) was measured by 5-point range scale. The level of well-being (WB), sources of social support, personal financial capacity, social status, etc. were studied as well. Data were processed by SPSS.v.19. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were applied. Over 70% of patients evaluated their health as fair and good. The persons with higher WB had higher SRH, that correlation was moderate (r=0.452; p=0.001). In regard to the social status the differences were significant - the unemployed, old age retirees or ill health retirees evaluated their health lower (p<0.05). A proportion of patients indicated two or more sources of emotional and instrumental support, but increased number of support sources had no effect on SRH (p>0.05). Identification of socioeconomic and psychological factors of self-rated health allows clarifying better their effect mechanisms and planning appropriate health services
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is ademyelinating disease caused by infection with Polyomavirus hominis 2, popularly known as JC virus (JCV). The disease is usually fatal as it develops due to the progressive destruction of oligodendrocytes in multiple brain foci. Several substances that show effect against JCV have been investigated. However, only the antimalarial drug mefloquine has been reported to significantly influence the viral replication both in vitro and following in vivo therapy with good penetration and distribution of the drug at efficacious concentrations into the central nervous system (CNS). The current material presents some of the available published data, suggesting that the activity of mefloquine against JCV be considered for treatment of patients with PML.