Browse

You are looking at 91 - 100 of 121 items for :

  • Biotechnology x
  • Microbiology and Virology x
Clear All
Open access

V. Jeevanandan and I. Kožárová

Abstract

The Total Antibiotics test is a microbial inhibition test which has been recently introduced for the detection of antibiotics in meat. The aim of this study was to determine whether it would be suitable for the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat. A comparison with the Premi®Test was assessed also for the suitability of the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat. A selection of poultry meat samples of different organ parts were assessed with 14 samples from Slovakian farms that had previously been tested for coccidiostats by the Veterinary and Food Institute in Košice. In addition, another 8 samples from varied Slovakian supermarkets such as Lidl, Billa and Tesco with samples of chicken or duck meat, were tested. Each prepared sample was added to the Total Antibiotics kit tubes and incubated. The samples from all sources showed a mixture of positive and negative results for the detection of coccidiostats.

For the Premi®Test, the samples used the same extraction procedure as the Total Antibiotics, placed in Premi®Test kit tubes and incubated. The Premi®Test demonstrated a mixture of positive and negative results, as similar to the Total Antibiotics for coccidiostats in the poultry farm samples. However, the Premi Test revealed many more negative results for the supermarket sources compared to the Total Antibiotics. Therefore, based on the total number of positive results, we concluded that Total Antibiotics is more sensitive for the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat, but depending on the source of the samples, both Total Antibiotics and Premi®Test had either similar or opposite results for the detection of coccidiostats.

Open access

K. Aalberg, L. Koščová, Ľ. Šmiga, P. Košuth, J. Koščo, M. Oros, D. Barčák and P. Lazar

Abstract

Argulus sp., commonly referred to as fish lice, are crustacean ectoparasites of fishes. The hematophagous parasites attach to and feed off the integument of their hosts. Outbreaks of epizootics have been reported worldwide, causing mass mortalities and having serious economic implications for fish farms and culture efforts. Argulus fish lice may also serve as vectors of infectious diseases and as intermediate hosts of other parasites. Two native European species, A. foliaceus and A. coregoni, as well as the invasive Japanese fish louse A. japonicus, have previously been recorded in Slovakia. This study investigated samples collected at fish farms and culture sites of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), Pike-perch (Sander lucioperca L.) and Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis M.) in Eastern Slovakia, as well as samples collected from live fish imported to the Slovak Republic. A quantitative description of the of Argulus sp. was recorded from each locality. Samples from Common carp were identified as the invasive A. japonicus, and samples from Pike-perch and Brook trout were identified as A. foliaceus. Evidence of a mixed infection of Pike-perch with both A. foliaceus and A. japonicus was found in samples from Zemplínska Šírava, which was substantiated by electron microscopic examination. Morphometric characteristics were measured and averages and ranges produced for each species and sex.

Open access

J. Hudáková, D. Marcinčáková and J. Legáth

Abstract

Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants which protects the human body against the effects of dangerous free radicals. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant activity, content of total phenols and flavonoids in selected types of coffee with respect to the way of their processing. The individual coffees were investigated with regard to their origin and composition. The antioxidant effects were determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The content of total phenols was analysed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the content of flavonoids in the coffee extracts was determined by a colorimetric method. The highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by the extract of unroasted ground 100 % green coffee Arabica (89.55 %), and the high scavenging of free radicals was achieved also by the extracts of roasted ground 100 % coffees Arabica and Robusta. The highest levels of total phenols (77.54 µg.ml−1) and flavonoids (1.74 µg.ml−1) were measured in the extract of unroasted ground 100 % green coffee Arabica. High levels of these substances were found also in extracts of roasted ground 100 % coffees Arabica and Robusta. The lowest levels of total phenols (31.24 µg.ml−1) and flavonoids (0.91 µg.ml−1) were detected in the extract of instant coffee Arabica. The processing of coffee by roasting decreased the level of the investigated antioxidant components but considerably improved the taste and aroma, the properties that make coffee one of the most popular drinks in the world.

Open access

M. Richards and A. Trbolová

Abstract

The objective of this study was to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP) and tear production before and after topical anaesthesia in healthy chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera). Thirteen healthy non-sedated chinchillas (eight males and five females) were used in this study. The tear production was measured by the novel endodontic paper point tear test (PPTT) using Roeko Colour No. 30 Paper points. Following the PPTT, one drop of 0.4 % oxybuprokainium chloride was added to the eye to anaesthetise the cornea and the IOP was measured using the Tono-Pen Avia®Vet. Excess anaesthetic was removed from the conjunctival fornix using a sterile cotton tipped applicator and the PPTT II was performed. The PPTT I and II were measured in 26 eyes, mean ± standard deviations (SD) were 7.98 ± 1.95 mm.min−1, and 9.71 ± 3.52 mm.min−1 respectively. The IOP was measured in 20 eyes, and the mean ± SD was 28.52 ± 12.48 mmHg (35.50 ± 9.31 mmHg in males and 21.53 ± 11.57 mmHg in females). There was no significant difference in the PPTT results between the left and right eyes or between the male and female groups. The males were found to have a significantly higher IOP than females and the PPTT II was significantly greater than the PPTT I. The PPTT test proved to be effective, easy to use, and reliable, causing little apparent discomfort to the chinchillas and could prove to be a much more effective tool than the Schirmer tear test for the evaluation of the tear production in animals with small eyes and/or low aqueous tear production. The mean intraocular pressure proved to be much higher in this population of chinchillas than those previously studied and so further investigation is warranted before a reliable reference range may be produced.

Open access

M. Bruce-Miller and M. Goldová

Abstract

This study was conducted in the country of Zambia, Southern Africa, to investigate the occurrence of endo-parasites in indigenous Zambian dogs. Faecal samples were collected from 41 indigenous Zambian dogs from different areas of the Mbabala region in the Southern province of Zambia during the “hot wet” season, although at the time that the samples were collected, the country was experiencing a drought. Faecal samples were analysed using the concentration flotation method with zinc sulphate for the determination of the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The most prevalent parasites were species from the family Ancylostomatidae (65.0 % infection rate) which followed by: Isospora canis (9.8 %), Dipylidium caninum (4.8 %), and Toxascaris leonina (2.4 %). There were in addition, two cases of co-infections with the family Ancylostomatidae and D. caninum, as well as the family Ancylostomatidae and I. canis.

Open access

R. Link, P. Reichel and P. Kyzeková

Abstract

Thirtytwo sows were included in the trial. They were divided into the experimental group (n = 16) and a control group (n = 16). The experimental group received 1.28 × 106 Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis per gram of feed (400 ppm BioPlus 2B, Chr. Hansen, Denmark). The trial started 2 weeks before farrowing and lasted until weaning. No significant differences were revealed in the number of piglets born alive, stillborn or the number of weaned pigs between the two groups of sows. The wean-to-first service interval was not significantly different between the groups, but sows in the experimental group had earlier first services. The conception rate did not differ. Sows in the experimental group suffered from postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) less than sows in the control group. The suckling piglets in the experimental group of sows reached better weight on day 14 of the trial and this state persisted up to the end of the experiment. The differences in the weights of the experimental group and the control group were significant at the end of the trial (P < 0.01). The experimental piglets had significantly lower incidence of diarrhoea than those in the control group (P < 0.05).

Open access

V. Vargová, F. Zigo, M. Chripková, D. Toropilová and M. Tomko

Abstract

The racing season is considered a critical period for racing pigeons due to the susceptibility to stress and weakening of the birds. One of the ways how to support their health and avoid problems involves supplementation of mineral-vitamin preparations based on selenium and vitamin E, which act as important antioxidants and protect cells against damage. This study investigated the influence of peroral supplementation of selenium at a dose of 0.3 mg Se.kg−1 feed dry matter (DM) in the form of Na2SeO3 and vitamin E 300 mg.ml−1 added to water at a rate of 4 ml.l−1 during 60 days. The supplemented group comprised 14 pigeons and their results were compared with a control group of 14 pigeons fed non-supplemented commercial feed. Blood samples were collected and examined at the beginning of the supplementation period, one day before a 300 km race and after the race. Pigeons from the supplemented group exhibited increased plasma levels of Se and vitamin E, as well as the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) before and after the 300 km race in comparison with the controls. Comparison of the activity of the enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and creatinine kinase (CK) at the beginning of the supplementation and one day before the race showed no changes. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activity of all investigated enzymes were observed after the race in both groups.

Open access

R.E. Muir and M. Halán

Abstract

Tarantulas are a relatively unstudied category of invertebrate which are popular with hobbyists and increasingly used in laboratory research. As their presence in the veterinary setting is limited, very little is known about the biochemistry of their haemolymph as obtained by in house sampling and analysis. A handful of studies have been performed to attempt to establish a normal range for certain parameters in healthy members of a few particular species, but that is the extent of the current research. In this study, 12 tarantulas of the Nhandu chromatus species purchased as immature siblings and kept under standardised conditions for 2.5 years were anaesthetised with isoflurane and had 0.2 ml of haemolymph sampled and analysed for: total protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorous and uric acid. As well as having kept a diary of their daily feed intake and recorded dates of ecdysis, the exposure time to anaesthetic and perceived effectiveness were recorded. The variables originally proposed for this investigation are based on 2 separate feeding regimes, differing in terms of feed quantity and the effect on the aforementioned biochemical parameters. Upon receipt of the biochemical results from the first sampling, it became apparent that unexpected correlations could be made between the stage of ecdysis, susceptibility to anaesthesia and the total protein levels in the haemolymph. Those that were due to shed imminently, indicated by cessation in feeding, had recognisably and significantly higher total protein levels and reached a better level of anaesthesia in less time. Additional samplings are planned in the future to specify more definitive parameters. The observations made inadvertently so far could constitute novel information and be practically useful to tarantula enthusiasts and anaesthetists, and therefore, potentially of high clinical significance.

Open access

K. Řeháčková, M. Haláková, B. Víchová and A. Kočišová

Abstract

This epizootiological study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of canine babesiosis in southwestern Slovakia. The study focused on the proportion of the species of ticks serving as babesia vectors of babesiosis in the ticks collected from selected locations close to Komárno, in southwestern Slovakia. Additionally, observations were made on the health and overall clinical signs in dogs suspected of having babesiosis. In 2014 we collected ticks from vegetation by the drag cloth (flagging) method and also directly from dogs. A totally of 622 ticks were collected: 491 Dermacentor reticulatus and 131 Ix-odes ricinus. Representative samples of ticks (n = 103) were examined by the molecular method and the presence of Babesia spp. DNA was identified in 12.5 % of the Ixodes ricinus ticks collected by flagging and in 9.5 % of the Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from the dogs. Babesia canis (KU681325) with 90 bp sequence, 100 % identical with Babesia canis isolates from dogs for example from: Turkey (KF499115), Rumania (HQ662634), Croatia (FJ209025), Poland (EU622792) and Russia (AY962186), was confirmed after sequencing in one Ixodes ricinus female obtained from a dog. This was the first confirmation of the occurrence of B. canis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Slovakia. In 2.2 % of the Dermacentor reticulatus ticks obtained from vegetation by flagging, we were able to diagnose the DNA of Babesia canis. In 4.8 % of the Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected from dogs, the presence of Babesia spp. was confirmed. Thirty three dogs with suspicion of babesiosis were observed in an ambulance by their health and clinical signs. The loss of appetite was observed in 22 patients (66.7 %), apathy in 19 cases (57.6 %), and fever in 19 cases. Closer specification indicating babesiosis was finding engorged ticks on the dog bodies which occurred in 21 cases (63.6 %), haematuria in 8 cases (24.2 %), anaemia in 4 cases (12.1 %), and tremor in 6 cases (18.2 %). Other non-specific signs, such as diarrhoea, vomitus, slowed-down movement, ataxia and lacrimation were also observed in less than 18 % of the examined dogs. On the basis of the specific clinical signs, blood was withdrawn from 33 dogs for preparation of blood smears and in 19 of them (57.6 %) babesia in erythrocytes were confirmed microscopically.

Open access

M. Z. J. Elias, E. Petrovová, K. Vdoviaková, M. Maloveská, J. Teleky and L. Krešáková

Abstract

This study determined the distribution and specialized morphology (gaps and fenestrations, irregular endothelium, internalization of luminal material) of vessels in the spongy and erectile tissue of the phallus in the ostrich. Specimens from the phallus harvested from 18 sexual mature and active ostriches were utilized. General routine fixation was used for tissue blocks and then they were processed conventionally for observation under the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The spongy tissue in the root of the phallus exhibited several blood vessels (mainly venules) within connective tissue strands. The capillaries displayed thick and attenuated endothelial profiles, whereas the venules were lined with an attenuated endothelium. Both vessel types displayed fenestrations and prominent gaps supported by a continuation of the basal lamina. Numerous cytoplasmic processes extended from the capillary endothelium, in places appearing to enclose and sequestrate luminal contents by phagocytosis. The internalized material appeared in the form of relatively large, pale vesicles. The endothelium was extremely irregular in profile, in some instances appearing to be composed of more than one layer of squamous cells. The erectile tissue lining the phallic sulcus presented relatively few capillaries and venules. These vessels exhibited features similar to those seen in the spongy tissue but the endothelial cells were markedly more complex and irregular in design.