Agnieszka Rombel-Bryzek, Małgorzata Rajfur and Olga Zhuk
Normal oxygen metabolism is an endogenous source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The source of ROS are also many environmental factors including heavy metals. In certain concentration range, the presence of ROS is necessary to maintain proper cell function. Thus, cells have many mechanisms, which role is focused on maintaining a constant concentration of ROS. Imbalance between the formation of ROS and action of a protective antioxidant system leads to oxidative stress. This may results with a damage to the structure of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, which in turn can lead to disturbances in the functioning of the cell and even to the death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of copper ions on the metabolic activity of garden cress Lepidium sativum L. The action of copper ions with different concentrations was treated seeds. After four, six and eight days after planting in the leaves of garden cress were determined the specific activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), lipid peroxidation and protein content. Additionally intake of copper ions was determined using adsorption spectrometry technique. The results revealed that the applied doses of copper ions affected the activity of guaiacol peroxidase. The highest enzyme activity was found in plant material, which was treated with dose of copper ions 1000 mg/dm3 regardless of day. In the same samples the lowest level of lipid peroxidation was found. The highest concentrations of total proteins was found in samples treated with the highest dose of copper ions. The copper content in the tested plant material is correlated with the applied dose of copper ions. Our results indicate reliable correlations between copper content and values of oxidative stress biomarkers in plant tissues.
Biological drying (biodrying) is one of the methods of biological processing of waste, used mainly as part of the mechanical biological treatment of mixed municipal waste. Biological drying uses the heat released during the decomposition of organic matter to reduce the amount of water in dried waste. The aim of the analyses was to provide a microbiological and energetic (fuel) assessment of the process of biodrying of alternative fuel (RDF) obtained by mechanical sorting of mixed municipal waste. The resulting alternative fuel (obtained with just sorting) is characterised by varied moisture content and the presence of diverse groups of microorganisms. The analyses were intended to assess 3 alternative methods of biodrying of alternative fuel in order to produce a stable end product for utility power generation and the cement industry. The analyses were performed using special bioreactors equipped with custom (innovative) fluidised bed, aeration system (air flow rate 500 m3 · h−1), effluents drain systems, post-process air offtake and 4 temperature sensors. The assessment of the impact of the employed bed aeration methods on the quality of the alternative fuel was performed in 3 repetitions with the same external parameters. The obtained results show that after 8 days of biodrying, in the most favourable option, the moisture content in the fuel was reduced to the level of 18.7%, i.e. by 39%, the resulting fuel was microbiologically stable and the calorific value of the fuel was increased on average by 3.2 MJ · kg−1.
Wojciech Luboń, Grzegorz Pełka, Konstanty Marszałek and Anna Małek
The outdoor measurements (during two months experiment) of photovoltaic silicon and CIGS modules as well as simulation of energy production during the period experiment are presented in this paper. This paper offer comparison of construction and electrical characteristics of multicrystalline silicon based modules and CIGS based modules. The measuring system for PV modules efficiency research is shown. The nominal power of installed modules is 250 W for m-Si and 280 W for CIGS modules. The energy production in outdoor conditions at direct current side and alternating current side of each photovoltaic panel was measured. Each PV panel was also equipped with temperature sensor for screening panel temperature. The photovoltaic panels were connected to the electrical network with micro inverters. To determine the influence of irradiance at sunshine on power conversion efficiency of PV panels, the pyranometer was installed in the plane of the modules. Measurement of the instantaneous power and irradiance gave the information about the efficiency of a particular photovoltaic panels. In the paper all data from research installation were analysed to present the influence of solar cell technology on the power conversion efficiency. The results of energy production show that m-Si module produced more energy from square meter (30.9 kWh/m2) than CIGS module (28.0 kWh/m2). Thin film module shows the higher production per kWp than multicrystalline module: 217.3 kWh/kWp for CIGS and 201.9 kWh/kWp for m-Si. The energy production simulation (made by PV SOL software and outdoor measurements test are in the good agreement. Temperature power coefficient for the CIGS module is twice lower than for the multicrystalline silicon module: 0.56%/°C and 0.35%/°C for m-Si and CIGS modules, respectively. The obtained results revealed strong influence of irradiance and temperature on energy production by PV panels. Performed studies have a large field of potential application and could improve designing process of PV installation.
The article presents the use of photovoltaic installation in a building with office space and a section for kindergarten to support the production of electricity using solar energy. Accepted technological installation solution, capital expenditures to be incurred for the project and payback time are shown. Paper presents the results of the performance simulation of the PV system adopted depending on the angle of photovoltaic panels. Designed photovoltaic installation consists of 62 panels with a total nominal power of 15.5 kW. The use of photovoltaics in the facility allow reducing carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere by approximately 52%. In Poland, most of the electricity produced is still based on coal and lignite. Photovoltaics is one of the renewable sources of energy, so-called “Green” energy. The investment could be made thanks to the Regional Operational Programme Podlaski, Activity 5.2 Development of local infrastructure, environmental protection 2007-2013.
This study investigated the possibility of using artificial neural networks to predict changes in the concentration of chloride ions in the urban ponds on the example of the inflow and outflow zones of water to and from the ponds Syrenie Stawy in Szczecin (NW-Poland). The possibility of using selected water quality indices (selected based on correlation matrix of water quality indices with Cl−), in particular: COD-Cr, BOD5, DO, water saturation by O2 and NO2− and their influence on the chloride concentration forecast was tested.
Lokman Hakan Tecer, Sermin Tagil, Osman Ulukaya and Merve Ficici
The objective of this research is to determine the atmospheric concentrations and spatial distribution of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E) and xylenes (X) (BTEX) and inorganic air pollutants (O3, NO2 and SO2) in the Yalova atmosphere during summer 2015. In this study, a combination of passive sampling and Geographical Information System-based geo-statistics are used with spatial statistics of autocorrelation to characterise the spatial pattern of the quality of air based on concentrations of these pollutants in Yalova. The spatial temporal variations of pollutants in the air with five types of land-use, residence, rural, highway, side road and industrial areas were investigated at 40 stations in Yalova between 7th August 2015 and 26th August 2015 using passive sampling. An inverse distance weighting interpolation technique was used to estimate variables at an unmeasured location from observed values at nearby locations. The spatial autocorrelation of air pollutants in the city was investigated using the statistical methods of Moran’s I in addition to the Getis Ord Gi. During the summer, highway and industrial sites had higher levels of BTEX then rural areas. The average concentration of toluene was measured to be 5.83 μg/m3 and this is the highest pollutant concentration. Average concentrations of NO2, O3 and SO2 are 35.64, 84.23 and 3.95 μg/m3, respectively. According to the global results of Moran’s I; NO2 and BTEX had positive correlations on a global space at a significant rate. Moreover, the autocorrelation analysis on the local space demonstrated significant hot spots on industrial sites and along the main roads.
Tadeusz Rodziewicz, Małgorzata Rajfur and Maria Wacławek
The article presents theoretical foundations of application of the reduced I-V Blaesser’s characteristics in predicting a photovoltaic cell/module (PV) efficiency, together with calculation procedures. A detailed analysis of the error of this transformation method of characteristics was carried out. Its practical application in predicting efficiency of operation of various PV cells and modules in medium and high insulation conditions was demonstrated. The practical suitability of the presented method in early detection of ageing phenomena, such as, for example, absorber degradation taking place in PV modules, was demonstrated. The article was prepared on the basis of the results of testing five different PV modules with various constructions, made of different materials and absorbers, such as: c-Si, mc-Si, CIS, a-Si_SJ, a-Si_TJ. The used measurement data were collected during the 16-year period of the experimental PV modules testing system operation in Opole University, equipped with a data acquisition system.
Amjad Mohammad Karimi, Soroor Sadeghi and Farhad Salimi
A new biodesulphurization method has been considered using Pseudomonas aeruginosa supported on polyethylene (PE) for biodesulphurization (BDS) of thiophene as an aromatic sulphur model compound of crude oils. Also the biodegradation of thiophene has been modified in the presence of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) as a terminal electron acceptor to approach the maximum biodesulphurization efficiency. The obtaining results according to UV-Spectrophotometry at 240 nm, 83.3% of thiophene at the primary concentration of 50 mg/dm3, pH = 7, by 0.5 g of biocatalyst in 37°C after 4 h of contact time has been removed. The bacterial cells exhibited a greater and faster biodegradation in the presence of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and 94.8% of thiophene has been removed after 3 h of contact time. Kinetic study predicted chemisorption of thiophene on the surface of the biocatalyst, as it followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Morphology and surface functional groups of the biocatalyst have been investigated by SEM and FT-IR, respectively.
This paper reports the results of research into the effectiveness of scavenging of PM10, resulting from the occurrence of solid and liquid hydrometeors. The measurement campaign was undertaken over 7 years and involved the registration of PM10 in areas which have different aerosanitary conditions (i.e. urban and undeveloped rural area). The analysis involved 426 observations taken at constant time intervals of 0.5 hour. The measurements of the concentration of PM10 were performed by means of a reference method accompanied by concurrent registration of basic meteorological parameters. It was indicated that in a urban location, the intensity of the local emission sources is a principal factor influencing the value of mass concentration changes and the effectiveness of the dust scavenging that accompanies a given type of precipitation. It was also noted that for the same intensity of precipitation, only the deposition of convective rainfall and long-term large-scale precipitation do not lead to statistically relevant differences in the value of mass concentrations of dust for both areas. It was indicated that during solid and liquid frontal precipitation of light intensity (< 0.5 mm·h−1), the effectiveness of PM10 removing is less in rural area. It was statistically proven that continuous precipitation of constant intensity and duration exceeding 2 hours has a similar effect of purifying the ambient air in both locations. The study revealed that short-term solid precipitation provides better characteristics of scavenging of PM10 compared with classic rainfall
Henryk Dębski, Wiesław Wiczkowski, Dorota Szawara-Nowak, Natalia Bączek, Małgorzata Piechota and Marcin Horbowicz
Tropospheric ozone forms in photochemical reactions or by refuse burning and combustion of exhaust gases from engines, and during some industrial processes. The mean ambient ozone concentration doubled during the last century, and in many urban areas has reached the phytotoxic level. In the present study, there was determined the effect of ozone fumigation on levels of individual flavonoids, chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols in the cotyledons of four common buckwheat cultivars (Hruszowska, Panda, Kora and Red Corolla). Six-day-old buckwheat seedlings were grown in controlled conditions and treated with an elevated dose of ozone (391 μg · m−3) during 5 days for 1 h each day. After the experiment, the cotyledons of the seedlings were analysed for individual flavonoids, chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols. Shoot elongation was also measured. Individual types of flavonoids in buckwheat cotyledons were found to respond to an elevated ozone dose in various ways. The response was also dependent on the cultivar evaluated. In the cotyledons of ozonized buckwheat seedlings, contents of C-glucosides of luteolin and apigenin decreased or did not change depending on the cultivar examined. In the case of flavonols, the contents of quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside and rutin (quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-glucoside) were markedly reduced in most cultivars. O3 had no effect on the level of anthocyanins and chlorophylls but it decreased carotenoids, and tended to inhibit buckwheat growth. In conclusion, a thesis can be formulated that, due to high reduction in important flavonoids, an elevated level of ambient ozone decreases the nutritional value of common buckwheat seedlings.