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José-María Serrano-Martínez and Ramón García-Marín

Abstract

For years, the Spanish population has been rapidly ageing, showing signs of atony and stagnation. Between 1996 and 2007, in a phase of economic growth, the entry of foreign immigrants drove a global increase in population. But after the economic recession migratory flows show negative net balances. Our objective is to explain and confirm the demographic regression suffered by Spain. We are also interested in showing how the recent and intense immigration process has failed to generate significant changes in natural demographic characteristics and trends. National censuses, published by the National Institute of Statistics (INE), are our main source of demographic data. The analysis of the most recent relevant scientific literature has allowed us to compare opinions and discuss results. The data confirm an uncertain and worrying future for the Spanish population.

Open access

Metod Šuligoj

Abstract

Slovenia represents a key source in the tourist market for the new post-Yugoslavian states, but little is known about Slovenians’ tourism practices, especially in relation to the post-communist dimension. The term “Yugonostalgia” came into existence in the 1990s in the post-Yugoslav area, and it illustrates the attitudes of people looking for a life that would be better than their present one. The term is also connected to tourism, although it has been largely neglected in the tourism literature. In this study, a total of 384 appropriately completed questionnaires were recorded and prepared for empirical analyses. Some 83.0% of respondents repeatedly return to a former Yugoslav destination they had visited in the past. Hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods were used to identify clusters. Subsequently, cross-tabulations were employed to profile each cluster based on demographic characteristics, and chi-square tests were performed to validate the clusters and their mutual differences. Significant differences between groups with respect to survey variables were verified by one-way analysis of variance models. Three significantly different clusters were identified: (i) friends of nature; (ii) immigrants and their descendants (from the post-Yugoslav states); and (iii) moderate lovers of nature and culture. None of identified clusters are characterised by Yugonostalgia: group members behave in similar ways to all contemporary tourists with varying individual interests, which is an additional interesting finding.

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Michał Krzyżaniak, Dariusz Świerk, Magdalena Szczepańska and Piotr Urbański

Abstract

Extensive and continuous areas of urban greenery are essential for the proper functioning of cities and for achieving optimal natural conditions. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes in the areas of public green space of Szczecin, Poznań and Wrocław in the years 1996–2013, and compare data on public greenery with demographic data and changes in the spatial development of the described cities. We used a linear regression and exponential regression to explain the results. In our opinion, it is necessary to establish the appropriate proportion of public greenery to the built-up areas in cities. Otherwise, we will be observing an adverse reduction of green areas in relation to residential areas. Surveys also indicate the need for action to prevent the outflow of population to the suburban areas.

Open access

Marina Ochkovskaya and Valentina Gerasimenko

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to investigate those buildings left over from Warsaw’s socialist past as a part of the city’s brand visual identity including their perception by foreign tourists and local citizens. Although Lisiak (2009) examined the destruction, removal and presence of these remnants from the socialist past in Central European cities, a comparative study of the perception of these architectural sites erected in Warsaw during socialist times has not been carried out specifically so far. To fill the gap, the authors concentrated research efforts on the following buildings: Palace of Culture and Science; the SMYK Store at Bracka 15/19; Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development at Wspólna 30; Office Building and Atrium at Wspólna 62; and the former headquarters of the Polish Communist Party at Nowy Świat 6/12. These buildings were built after the Second World War between the late 1940s and the first half of the 1950s. With the exception of the Palace of Culture and Science - which is one of the most notable symbols of Warsaw - these architectural sites are not on a priority list of the average tourist who does little or no planning for their trip. Nevertheless, these buildings are connected to the Polish People’s Republic era and might attract different groups interested in this historical period and architecture. Apart from being potential tourist attractions, these buildings are being re-evaluated and restored to become integrated into the urban environment and more ‘comfortable’ for the local inhabitants. This paper gives some insights into the recognition and attractiveness of these architectural sites from the socialist past by those from Russia and the USA who have visited Warsaw as well as by Poles who know this city well. It is recommended that these results be taken into consideration by tourist agencies who deal with tours in Warsaw as well as institutions responsible for the city’s image. The authors express the hope that this paper might be of interest for officials with public relations duties related to these architectural sites.

Open access

Mieczysław Adamowicz and Karolina Ziółkowska

Abstract

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the work is the issue related to making investment decisions on the Polish market of café services in Warsaw. The work contains a theoretical and an empirical part. The aim of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of different ways of running a café in the form of creating your own brand, a network café franchise or cooperation based on an agency agreement. Materials and methods: The work was based on the problem literature, materials made available by companies offering cooperation in the cafeteria industry and reports from a research company regarding the HoReCa market. A prospective ex-ante analysis has been given the form of a business plan for a newly created coffee shop. Results: The basics of creating a new enterprise were discussed and the undertaking was characterized taking into account the location, competition, employment plan, marketing and risk assessment. A SWOT analysis and financial forecasts were prepared, taking into account capital expenditures, demand forecast, revenues, costs and margins, as well as the analysis of other financial parameters. Conclusions: Available business models offer the investor a wide range of investment options. The choice of a business model depends both on the investor’s expectations and its proneness to risk taking as well as on the location of the planned undertaking.

Open access

Marian Gúčik and Matúš Marciš

Abstract

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this study is the region of Eastern Slovakia. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of tourism on regional development. To analyse the influence of tourism facilities on regional development selected indicators of tourism development are used. Materials and methods: The material consists of data from the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, the Ministry of Transport and Construction of the Slovak Republic and selected municipalities. The data are processed by methods of descriptive statistics. Results and conclusions: The article explains the importance of tourism in the development of the Eastern Slovakia region. Based on the analysis of economic impacts of tourism on the regional development we can conclude that tourism has minimal effects on this region.

Open access

Jacek Kamiński

Abstract

Subject and purpose of work: This work is devoted to presenting the development of the systemic paradigm in marketing science. Its purpose is to discuss the genesis and early stages of the development of systemic paradigm that forms the basis of one of its mainstream marketing theories, known as macromarketing. Materials and methods: The article was created on the basis of the review and synthesis of the previous studies devoted to the issue of systemic approach to marketing and marketing systems. The historical analysis method, combined with the synthesis of earlier research achievements, was employed. Results: The article fills a gap in the area of identifying alternative paradigms of marketing science. It demonstrates how the systemic approach proposed by the forerunners of marketing was developed into a concept which is now the foundation of one of contemporary marketing sub-disciplines - macromarketing. Conclusions: The main conclusion that follows from the conducted analysis is the observation that systemic paradigm is deeply ingrained in the tradition of marketing thought, creating a prominent direction of reflection which is more concerned with the environmental and social role of marketing than with marketing as a management function

Open access

Andrey Klemeshev, Gennady Fedorov and Efim Fidrya

Abstract

There are different levels of territorial identity perceived as a sense of belonging to a particular social and territorial community. People residing in any region identify themselves with these levels to a different degree. Since 2001, the authors have been doing sociological research into the territorial identity of the population of the Kaliningrad region, which became a Russia’s exclave after the demise the USSR. The research shows that residents of the Kaliningrad region associate themselves with different territorial communities to a varying degree starting with an ever strengthening sense of national identity, followed by the regional and local identity. The sense of macro-regional (European) and global identity is significantly lower.

Open access

Rafał Wiśniewski

Abstract

The demographic transformations in Russia have led to changes in the country’s urban population (population of cities and urban-type settlements), which declined by 3.3% in the years 1989-2010. However, the population of cities as such increased over the same period by 1.5%, mainly as a result of the huge growth in the population of Moscow. Population changes in Russian cities vary depending on the size of the city. The greatest change was observed, above all, in small peripheral cities, which lost as much as half of their population. However, even more alarming are the trends observed in the smaller cities of the historical heart of Russia, which fall within the catchment area of Moscow (and its aglomeration) and cities of supraregional importance. Such cities have been depopulating as fast as Siberian cities.

Open access

Tolulope Osayomi and Maryanne A. Orhiere

Abstract

Overweight and obesity are two related health issues of epidemic proportions. In Nigeria, these health conditions have been emerging only recently. The extant literature shows inter-city variations in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria. However, they say little about intra-city variations of these health problems in Nigerian urban centres. Thus, the focus of the study was to determine the small-area variations in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in an urban area of Nigeria and its association with socio-economic, environmental, dietary and lifestyle risk factors. With the aid of a questionnaire, information on the demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle, household and neighbourhood characteristics of respondents was obtained from respondents. Overweight and obesity were computed based on the self-reported height and weight of respondents, using the Body Mass Index (BMI) formula. A simple linear regression model was estimated to determine the individual and collective effects of risk factors. Findings showed that there were noticeable spatial variations in the prevalence of overweight and obesity which result from the varying contextual and compositional characteristics among the political wards of the Ibadan North LGA. Physical proximity to fast food outlets was the only significant factor driving the spatial pattern of obesity (b = 0.645; R2 = 0.416). The paper suggests that government and health officials should formulate area-specific obesity prevention and control plans to curb this growing epidemic in Nigeria.