Due to low effectiveness or high costs of using chemical agents in the protection of common mushrooms, producers are forced to look for alternative methods of protection. One such method is the use of preparations containing beneficial microorganisms. A statistical evaluation of this mushroom protection method and determination of the number of infected fruiting bodies is presented in this paper
The Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of all the major economies around the world. Majority of these industries are facing tough environment for existence. The present study explored the most common and easily implementable Lean Tools/Techniques amongst the SMEs. This has been achieved via a detailed survey of SMEs in India. Study concludes with nine most common Lean Tools/Techniques implemented across the surveyed population of Indian SMEs.
Petr Savinykh, Vladimir Kazakov, Nikolaj Czerniatiev, Svietlana Gerasimova, Wacław Romaniuk and Kinga Borek
Analysis of patent solutions and research of scientific-research literature in the field of grain processing with technical devices, e.g. kneaders in relation to the quality and digestibility in feed doses of the obtained syrup for the development of beef and dairy cattle was performed. Assumptions of the development trend of feed production, new technologies based on grain, which allow improvement of the quality of feed and reliability of technological lines of animal nutrition, reduce energy consumption, reduce losses were presented. In this regard, reduction of the cost of producing feed compared for example to the production of fodder beet or sugar beet from 1.5 to 2 times is possible.
The paper presents results of analysis of turbidity changes in washing solutions and the quantity of solid particles present in them during regeneration under various temperature conditions. Three solutions taken from breweries after the process of washing brewhouse equipment in the CIP system were evaluated. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, to define the functions that characterize the changes of the tested parameters in relation to time and temperature. The results showed that the tested solutions have different favourable conditions for their regeneration. It has also been shown that the character of changes in solutions in the regeneration process is more advantageously determined on the basis of turbidity tests of solutions.
The paper presents analysis of efficiency of the logging unit comprising Belarus 820 farm tractor and PD80 logging trailer equipped with Ryś-1 crane. Analysis was made based on the working day timing. The unit logged 1- meter long tree pieces (hornbeam, oak, birch) from the area where material for logging was distributed irregularly on the entire felling site. Unfavourable atmospheric conditions were reported during the working day (a thick layer of snow, low temperature, not frozen soil) which could have influenced the unit operation performance. Despite that the performance of the logging unit was comparable to similar logging units described in the literature. Determined coefficient of use of the operating time of the machine K02 was 0.93, coefficient of use of the shift working time K04 − 0.9, coefficient of use of the shift exploitation time K07 − 0.8. Hourly performance in the shift exploitation time was 4.98 m3·h−1, efficiency in the shift working time W02 − 4.80 m3·h−1 and performance in the general shift time W07 − 4.30 m3·h−1.
Virgil Florescu, Laurențiu Rece, Ștefan Mocanu and Amelitta Legendi
The safety of railways has been and remains a critical topic. Whether it is infrastructure or rolling stock, the issue of safety is a permanent concern of the utmost importance, being reflected in the efficiency of any transport system.
This paper focuses on the safety in operation of pressure vessels that equip railway tanks. There are many articles and works on this subject, and it is well-known that there are both national and international regulations regarding their design, execution, operation and maintenance. Also, there are quite a few reports on the BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) phenomenon resulting in material damage and significant casualties. The BLEVE-type explosion is not considered a chemical explosion derived from a gas-air explosive environment (also present in non-flammable gases), but rather a mechanical explosion through over-pressurization.
Thus, we propose a comparative study between the results obtained using theoretical methods and those obtained as a result of tensoresistive measurements on such a tanker.
Properly designed housing buildings, with regard to reduction of a negative influence on environment, are necessary for ensuring sustainable development in agriculture. The objective of this paper was to show the results of environmental conditions research on high milk yield dairy cattle in different housing systems. Temperature and relative humidity of air and concentrations of harmful gases − ammonia and carbon dioxide accompanying them were investigated.
The aim of the study is to find out the role of the ecological and geographical fator in obtaining sustainable yields and the assessment of the environment as a background for the selection in breeding of vegetable adaptive ability. Objects of research: winter garlic, vegetables beans, headed salad. Research was conducted in various ecological and geographical zones of Belarus, Russia, Uzbekistan. Environmental parameters as the background for selection were determined using Kilchevsky’s, L. V. Hotyleva’s (1985), technique, Kilchevsky (1985). Differences between testing points on environmental parameters for determining the trait “yielding capacity” have been revealed, maximum environmental productivity at assessing various genotype sets has been determined. Long-term research showed that sustainable productivity depends on the ability of a genotype to respond to environmental conditions. Based on the obtained results, statistical parameters of quantity traits of the parent material, their variability depending on ecological-geographical factor and the character of influence on the potential yields and ecological sustainability have been received. Using various ecological and geographical zones helps to reveal the potential of plants in given conditions on sustainability and productivity parameters. Testing of winter garlic, beans, head salad allowed differentiation of them according to adaptability capacity at various set of genotypes. It was found out that research must be carried out at highly productive and analyzing backgrounds to get the required material. One of the main methods enabling to increase plant selection efficiency is the use of natural ecological backgrounds.
The paper presents the results of analysis concerning the impact of temperature on sedimentation in the caustic soda solution that constitute a contamination after the process of cleaning utensils and pipes for hopped wort transport in the brewery. The solution was collected from the production plant after the process of cleaning and subjected to 12-hour sedimentation and changes of the solid particles participation, their size and percentage share in the solution was determined. The study was carried out with the Shadow Sizing method. The results were subjected to statistical analysis and the surface area of the response of the relation between the time and temperature of sedimentation and the number of particles which stay in the solution was calculated. The research results proved that the temperature significantly affects the cleaning degree of solutions by sedimentation and its duration. After sedimentation in solutions, particles with the surface area from 0.001-0.003 mm2 remain. Those particles are not subject to sedimentation and constitute a coloidal suspension in the solution.
Zygmunt Owsiak, Krzysztof Lejman, Krzysztof Pieczarka and Tomasz Sekutowski
The paper presents the outcomes of the research on the impact of shearing depth and flexibility of cultivator tines with cultivator points on the value of vertical forces acting thereon. The object of the research consisted in “S” tines with the flexibility coefficient of 0.0061; 0.0711; 0.0953 and 0.1406 m∙kN−1. The investigations were carried out in field conditions in sandy clay soil with moisture of 11.2%. The forces were measured for the assumed shearing depths which were 5, 9 and 13 cm at the shearing speed of 3 m∙s−1. A stand for measurement of forces acting on soil shearing tools in the field conditions was used. It was found out that the increase of the shearing depth causes a linear increase of the vertical force, but the force gradient decreases with the growth of the tine flexibility. Moreover, it was found out that the increase of the tine flexibility at the beginning causes the increase and then the decrease of the vertical force regardless the shearing depth. The impact of flexibility on the vertical force value was described with the parabola equation. The tines flexibility, at which the highest value of vertical force may be expected, grows with the reduction of the shearing depth.