The requirements put on coating materials are more and more stringent mainly in the environmental domain, especially as regards VOC emissions. This is why water-based binders as alternatives to solvent-based binders, to provide paints possessing equally good use properties, are intensively sought. The objective of this work was to assess the anticorrosion and chemical properties of paint films based on new self-cross-linking acrylic latexes. The latexes were synthesized via two--step emulsion polymerisation to obtain a core-shell system. Nanostructural ZnO in an amount of 1.5 wt. % was added to the system during the latex binder synthesis. Paints with an enhanced corrosion resistance and chemical resistance of the films were prepared. The binders prepared were pigmented with anticorrosion pigments and their properties were compared to those of commercial water-based dispersions with either identical or different paint film formation mechanisms. The results gave evidence that if a well-selected pigment is used, the binders can be used to obtain anticorrosion coating materials for metallic substrates.
The paper presents simulation method and results of calculations determining behavior of helicopter and landing site loads which are generated during phase of the helicopter take-off and landing. For helicopter with whirling rotor standing on ground or touching it, the loads of landing gear depend on the parameters of helicopter movement, occurrence of wind gusts and control of pitch angle of the rotor blades. The considered model of helicopter consists of the fuselage and main transmission treated as rigid bodies connected with elastic elements. The fuselage is supported by landing gear modeled by units of spring and damping elements. The rotor blades are modeled as elastic axes with sets of lumped masses of blade segments distributed along them. The Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equations of motion of the helicopter model. According to the Galerkin method, it was assumed that the parameters of the elastic blade motion can be treated as a combination of its bending and torsion eigen modes. For calculations, data of a hypothetical light helicopter were applied. Simulation results were presented for the cases of landing helicopter touching ground with different vertical speed and for phase of take-off including influence of rotor speed changes, wind gust and control of blade pitch. The simulation method may help to define the limits of helicopter safe operation on the landing surfaces.
Air contents of concrete are necessary for concrete durability in freeze-thaw exposure. According to the Finnish concrete code, the target value for air content varies between 4% and 5.5% for XF - exposure classes. Lately in Finland, some cases showed an elevation of air contents up to 15% in fresh air-entrained concrete at construction site and in drilled concrete samples.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the stability of air entrainment by measuring the air content elevation 30 minutes and 60 minutes after concrete mixing and investigating the concrete sensitivity to segregation. Composition of concretes used in this study include 7 different combination of PCE based superplasticizer and air-entraining agent admixtures, cement content of 425 kg/m3, two consistency classes S3 with water to cement ration of 0.33 and F5 with water to cement ration of 0.38. One cement type was used for all concrete mixes. The concretes were mixed for 2 minutes and 5 minutes mixing times.
The results show that the elevation of the air content of fresh concrete depends on the consistency of the concrete and on the used combination of superplasticizer and air-entraining agents. The higher consistency classes concretes have more risk of air elevation with some combinations of PCE-based superplasticizers and air-entraining agents. The results also indicate that short mixing time would not be enough to achieve total effectivity of some air-entraining agents, especially for higher consistency classes concrete.
Omer Kaygili, Niyazi Bulut, Tankut Ates, Ismail Ercan, Suleyman Koytepe, Turgay Seckin, Cengiz Tatar, Bayram Gunduz and Hanifi Kebiroglu
In the present study, the dopant effect of Zn on the crystal structure, thermal properties and morphology of magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel (MAS) structure was investigated. A pure and two Zn-containing MASs (e.g. MgAl1.93Zn0.07O4 and MgAl1.86Zn0.14O4) were synthesized for this purpose via a wet chemical method, and the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the crystal structure, thermal properties and morphology of the MAS system change with the increase in the amount of Zn. MgO phase formation was observed. The values of the lattice parameter, unit cell volume and crystallite size increased, and the crystallinity percentage decreased. The morphology was also affected by adding of Zn.
Madiha Sarfraz, Nasar Ahmed, Khizar-ul-Haq, Shabnam Shahida and M. A. Khan
Transition metals, such as chromium (Cr) and manganese (Mn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) magnetic nanoparticles, were synthesized via sole gel auto-combustion method. The prepared magnetic (Zn1−(x+y)MnxCryO, where x, y = 0, 0.02, 0.075) nanoparticles were calcined in an oven at 6000 °C for 2 hours. The morphologies of the nanoparticles were investigated using different techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the synthesized nanoparticles was unaffected by doping concentration. The crystallite size measured by Scherrer formula was in the range of 32 nm to 38 nm at different doping concentrations. Nanosized particles with well-defined boundaries were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra showed a wide absorption band around 1589 cm−1 in all the samples, corresponding to the stretching vibration of zinc and oxygen Zn–O bond. A blue shift in optical band gaps from 3.20 eV for ZnO to 3.08 eV for Zn0.85Mn0.075Cr0.075O nanoparticles was observed in diffuse reflectance spectra, which was attributed to the sp-d exchange interactions. The field-dependent magnetization M-H loops were measured using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The VSM results revealed diamagnetic behavior of the ZnO nanoparticles which changed into ferromagnetic, depending on the doping concentration and particle size. The compositions of Zn, Cr, Mn and O in the prepared samples were confirmed by using the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our results provided an interesting route to improve magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles, which may get significant attention for the fabrication of magnetic semiconductors.
In the present work, a new organic second order NLO material: L-isoleucinium p-toluenesulfonate monohydrate (LIPT) is synthesized and reported for the first time. The LIPT is crystallized in a non-centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21. Structural and hydrogen bond nature of the compound is analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The crystal exhibits very good optical properties such as wide optical transparency in the region of 210 nm to 1100 nm and the ultraviolet wavelength emission (λ = 283 nm). The second harmonic generation efficiency is found to be 1.7 times the standard KDP. Good thermal, mechanical properties and low dielectric constant at high frequency range show that the material may be a potential candidate for optoelectronic applications.
In this communication, we report on Cu2SnS3 quantum dots synthesized by the solvothermal process using different solvents. The optical properties of the quantum dots are analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results suggest that Cu2SnS3 material has tunable energy bandgap and appropriate wavelength for fabrication of light emitting diodes and laser diodes as sources for fiber optic communication. They exhibit wide absorption in the near infrared range. Further morphological studies with the use of atomic force microscope confirm the surface topography and the existence of quantum dots. The observed characteristics prove the efficiency of Cu2SnS3 quantum dots for O-band wavelength detection used in fiber optic communication and solar cell applications.
This paper attempts to describe an effective method for producing a composite of quantum dots consisting of CdSe (core) with CdS (shell). This nanoparticles composite was synthesized from modified organometallic precursors. The sizes of the nanoparticles were estimated from X-ray diffraction data using Debye-Scherer formula and compared with high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and optical spectra. The shape of CdSe/CdS NPs is nearly spherical and revels that the CdS shell with the thickness ~0.6 nm almost fully covers the CdSe core (higher contrast). Using UV-Vis spectroscopy, a systematic red shift in the absorption and emission spectra was observed after the deposition of CdS which confirms the shell growth over the CdSe core. In the CdSe/CdS core/shell structure, the holes are confined to the core, while the electrons are delocalized as a result of similar electron affinities of the core and the shell. The increased time of synthesis resulted in shell thickness increase. The observed properties of prepared CdSe/CdS QDs demonstrate the capability of the nanocomposite for using in the optoelectronics and photonics devices.
An inorganic coordination complex of single crystal containing sodium and aluminum (SA) was grown at room temperature by slow evaporation technique. The crystal was characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, UV-Vis, SHG, SEM, EDX and TG/DTA analyses. The size of the grown crystal was around 17 mm × 15 mm × 5 mm. Both optical and SEM photographs confirmed that the crystal is transparent with smooth surface. The XRD data showed that the crystal belongs to the BCC crystal structure. The crystal shows excellent transparency in the entire region of visible light (cut-off value is 339 cm−1). The dielectric constant as well as dielectric loss of the sample was calculated by varying frequencies at different temperatures and the presence of low dielectric loss proved that this crystal can be used for the NLO application.
Ingrid Lande Larsen, Otto Terjesen, Rein Terje Thorstensen and Terje Kanstad
This paper aims at identifying the direction for more sustainable development of the use of concrete in road infrastructure in an industrialised context.
The increase in the global mean temperature is one of the most severe challenges today. The concrete industry is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gases, most attributable to cement production. However, concrete is one of the most important building materials in the world and indispensable for the societal development in countries at all development stages. Thus, the concrete industry needs to take measures for reducing emissions.
This paper investigates possible directions for the development of the concrete industry, to reduce climatic impact and accommodate positive societal growth. The investigation is carried out as a SWOT analysis, focusing on three terms dominating the present discussion on any development within the construction industry; sustainability, industrialisation and digitalisation. The result is a thorough discussion and a set of recommendations for the direction of future research and innovation on sustainable use of concrete in the construction of road infrastructure. The major opportunities and threats are summarised in the conclusions, and future research to be carried out in two of the authors’ PhD-projects are described.