A Olgac, Orgun L Tekin, FS Ezgü, G Biberoǧlu and L Tümer
L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA), which is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the encoding L2HGDH gene. Neurological symptoms are the main predominant clinical signs. The distinctive feature is the specific multifocal lesion of the white matter detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 7-year-old male patient of Turkish origin was admitted to the hospital because of hand tremors. Physical examination revealed macrocephaly, intention tremors, walking disability and ataxic gait. Urine organic acid analysis showed increased excretion of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (L2HG acid). Analysis of the L2HGDH gene revealed a novel homozygous c.368A>G, p. (Tyr123Cys) mutation. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a cerebral organic aciduria that may lead to various neurological complications. Early recognition of symptoms of L2HGA is important for initiation of supportive therapy that may slow down the progression of the disease.
S Karsli-Ceppioglu, S Yazar, Y Keskin, M Karaca, NE Luleci and T Yurdun
Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is an important regulatory protein for inhibition of calcification in the vessel wall and cartilage. The MGP gene polymorphisms are suspected to increase the risk of extracellular calcification through altering the related gene expression and serum MGP levels. The goal of this study was to examine the correlation between rs4236 (Thr83-Ala), rs12304 (Glu60-X) and rs1800802 (T138-C) polymorphisms of the MGP gene and coronary artery calcification. Serum MGP levels of 168 subjects who had undergone coronary angiography were analyzed along with genotyping of MGP gene polymorphisms. The results indicated that serum MGP levels were significantly associated with rs4236 and rs1800802 polymorphisms of the MGP gene with the occurrence of coronary artery diseases (CAD). Allelic distributions of MGP gene polymorphisms and serum MGP levels, respectively, were not significantly interconnected with the presence of CAD. Our results revealed that serum MGP levels of CAD patients show association with rs4236 and rs1800802 polymorphisms, but serum MGP levels alone do not directly reflect the risk of CAD. The role of MGP genetic variants on formation and progression of arterial calcification should be regarded in cardiovascular diseases.
A Zarina, I Tolmane, Z Krumina, AI Tutane and L Gailite
Wilson’s disease (WD) is a copper metabolism disorder, caused by allelic variants in the ATP7B gene. Wilson’s disease can be diagnosed by clinical symptoms, increased copper and decreased cerulopasmin levels, which could all also be by other genetic variants beyond the ATP7B gene, e.g., disturbed ceruloplasmin biosynthesis can be caused by pathogenic allelic variants of the CP gene. Copper metabolism in the organism is affected by several molecules, but pathogenic variants and related phenotypes are described with COMMD1 and ATOX1 genes. The aim of the study was to test other genes, CP, ATOX1 and COMMD1, for possible influence to the manifestation of WD. Patients were enrolled on the basis of Leipzig’s diagnostic criteria, 64 unrelated patients with confirmed WD. Direct sequencing of promoter region of the CP gene and ATOX1 and COMMD1 gene exons was conducted. Statistically significant differences were found between the two variants in the CP gene and the ATP7B genotype (rs66508328 variant AA genotype and the rs11708215 variant GG genotype) were more common in WD patients with an unconfirmed ATP7B genotype. One allelic (intronic) variant was found in the ATOX1 gene without causing the functional changes of the gene. Three allelic variants were identified in the COMMD1 gene. No statistically significant differences were found between allele and genotype frequencies and the first clinical manifestations of WD. Different variants of the CP gene contributed to a WD-like phenotype in clinically confirmed WD patients with neurological symptoms and without identified pathogenic variants in the ATP7B gene. Allelic variants in the ATOX1 and COMMD1 genes do not modify the clinical manifestation of WD in Latvian patients. (266 words)
A Khan, S Khan, A Aman, Y Ali, M Jamal, B Rahman, M Ahmad, M Aasim, F Jalil and AA Shah
The present study was designed to measure the mean values of body mass index (BMI), random blood sugar/ fast ing blood sugar (RBS/FBS) tests, and Hb A1c and to investigate the role of a genetic variant rs1544410 in the VDR gene in a Pakistani cohort. For this purpose, a total of 917 samples including 469 diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), 145 DM type 1 (T1DM), and 303 healthy control were collected. Out of the total sample set, 500 individuals (250 T2DM cases and 250 controls) were genotyped for rs1544410. It was found that 65 (26.0%) cases and 32 (12.8%) controls had homozygous AA, while 69 (27.6%) cases and 139 (55.6%) controls had heterozygous AG, and 116 (46.4%) cases and 79 (31.6%) controls had homozygous GG (χ2 = 41.81, p = 0.0001). In addition, a similar distribution of allele frequency was determined in cases and controls [p value = 0.866; odds ratio (OR) = 0.967; relative risk (RR) = 1.034]. A significant difference was observed in homozygous dominant [OR = 2.394 (1.501-3.816); RR = 1.46 (1.225-1.740); p = 0.003] and homozygous recessive models [OR = 2.970 (2.086-4.227); RR = 1.798 (1.501-2.154); p = <0.0001] analysis of rs1544410 in the VDR gene. These findings suggest that the VDR gene is associated with T2DM and genotype GG of genetic variant rs1544410 is the susceptible genotype in our Pakistani cohort.
L Zhao, L-Y Zou, B-F Cheng, X-J Yu, J-H Zou and W Han
Most studies in the field of CHRNA5-A3 and CHRNB3-A6 have only focused on lung cancer risk; however, the associations with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk and smoking cessation is less understood, particularly in the Chinese male population. In this study, samples from 823 male patients with COPD (non smokers: 416; still smoking: 407) and 435 smoking male healthy control subjects were performed with DNA extraction and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We studied three SNPS in two genes, namely rs667282 and rs3743073 in CHRNA5-A3 and rs4950 in CHRNB3-A6, and their distributions in the three groups are not statistically different (p >0.05). We grouped COPD patients according to whether they had successfully quit smoking, the CT genotype of rs667282 demonstrated association with an increased rate of successful smoking cessation compared with the TT genotype [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.37-0.7, p <0.001); rs4950 AG genotypes were distinctly associated with increased rates of successful smoking cessation (adjusted OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.76, p <0.001). The effect is significant under the assumption of an over dominant mode of inheritance (adjusted OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.79, p <0.001). No significant difference in rs3743073 was found (p >0.05). Our findings confirmed the hypothesis that CHRNA5-A3 and CHRNB3-A6 variation are not associated with the risk of COPD. We found CHRNA5-A3 and CHRNB3-A6 were significantly associated with successful smoking cessation in smoking COPD patients.
A Maver, G Čuturilo, Stojanović J Ruml and B Peterlin
Microcephaly is characterized by significant clinical and genetic heterogeneity, therefore reaching the genetic diagnosis remains challenging in this group of disorders. We describe a case of a girl with secondary microcephaly, associated with severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, growth retardation and dysmorphic features. For purposes of clinical genetic diagnostic testing, we performed trio whole exome sequencing in the proband and unaffected parents. We found a heterozygous de novo missense variant in the H3F3A gene in the proband (NM_ 002107.4: c.185T>G), which is absent from the gnomAD and from the Slovenian Genome databases. The identified variant affects a highly conserved leucine residue at position 62 of the histone H3 protein (H3.3) and is predicted to affect the physicochemical properties of the affected protein. Mouse models, which demonstrated involvement of H3.3 protein in the control of neuronal- and glial-specific gene expression patterns that control synaptic connectivity and behavioral plasticity. Additionally, we also identified similar cases reported in the ClinVar database. These arguments support the possible pathogenic role of the reported genetic variant and thus suggest a novel molecular mechanism for this syndromic form of microcephaly.
M Popova-Labachevska, I Panovska-Stavridis, A Eftimov, Nestorovska A Kapedanovska, L Cevreska, M Ivanovski, N Ridova, S Trajkova and AJ Dimovski
The identification of the JAK2V617F mutation in several distinct myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) raised the question how one single mutation incites expression of at least three different clinical phenotypes, i.e., polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). In order to further evaluate already published data on the correlation between mutant JAK2V617F allele burden and specific hematological and clinical parameters, we tested the level of the JAK2 mutation in 134 JAK2+ patients with different MPNs. The patients were diagnosed according to the 2008 WHO criteria and followed for a median of 48 months. The JAK2 V617F quantification was done with a real time polymerase chain reaction (real time-PCR) method. The median allele burden was lowest in ET (25.8%), followed by 34.6% in PV and 51.8% in PMF patients (p<0.01). There was statistically significant association between the mutational load of 10.0-50.0% and blood count parameters in the PV patients (p<0.05). In PMF patients the mutational load was in correlation with older age and leukocyte count that were higher in patients with the mutational load of 10.0-50.0% and >50.0% compared to those with a mutational load of <10.0%. There were no statistically significant associations between the allele burden and blood counts in the ET cohort. Our study confirmed an association between the JAK2V617F allele burden and the distinct MPN phenotypes, indicating unfavorable prognosis in patients with a higher JAK2 allele burden. Our results suggest that JAK2 quantification should be incorporated in the diagnostic work-up of MPN patients as a useful tool for optimal treatment decision.
J Paprocka, B Rzepka-Migut, N Rzepka, A Jezela-Stanek and E Morava
Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare autosomal dominant leukodystrophy with three clinical subtypes: infantile, juvenile and adult. Forms differ by age of symptoms occurrence and the clinical presentation. Although recent data suggest considering only two subtypes: type I (infantile onset with lesions extending to the cerebral hemispheres); type II (adult onset with primary involvement of subtentorial structures). Dominant mutations in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene in AxD cause dysfunction of astrocytes (a type III intermediate filament). The authors discuss the clinical picture of a boy with infantile form of AxD confirmed by the presence of de novo heterozygous mutation c.236G>A in the GFAP gene and without striking symptoms such as macrocephaly and with exceptional late-onset epileptic spasms with hypsarrhyth- mia on electroencephalogram (EEG).
M Staninova-Stojovska, N Matevska-Geskovska, M Panovski, B Angelovska, N Mitrevski, M Ristevski, R Jovanovic and AJ Dimovski
Hereditary factors are assumed to play a role in ~35.0-45.0% of all colorectal cancers (CRCs) with about 5.0-10.0% associated with high penetrant disease-causing mutations in genes correlated to hereditary polyposis (HP) or hereditary non polyposis syndromes (HNPCC). Although inherited germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) and the APC genes contribute significantly to CRC, genetic diagnosis cannot yet be obtained in more than 50.0% of familial cases. We present updated data of 107 probands from the Macedonian population with clinically diagnosed HP (n = 41) or HNPCC (n = 66) obtained by next generation sequencing (NGS) with three different gene panels covering the coding, flanking and promoter regions of 114 cancer predisposition genes. Using this approach, we were able to detect deleterious mutations in 65/107 (60.7%) patients, 50.4% of which were in known well-established CRC susceptibility genes and 10.2% in DNA repair genes (DRG). As expected, the highest frequencies of deleterious variants were detected in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and in HNPCC patients with microsatellite instability (MSI) tumors (93.8 and 87.1%, respectively). Variants of unknown significance (VUS) were detected in 24/107 (22.4%) patients, mainly in HNPCC patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors or patients with oligopolyposis. The majority of VUS were also found in DRG genes, indicating the potential role of a doble-strand brake DNA repair pathway deficiency in colorectal cancerogenesis. We could not detect any variant in 18/107 (16.8%) patients, which supports the genetic heterogeneity of hereditary CRC, particularly in HNPCC families with MSS tumors and in families with oligopolyposis.
M Kocova, D Plaseska-Karanfilska, P Noveski and M Kuzmanovska
Steroid 5-α-reductase-2 (5-ARD) deficiency is a result of mutations of the SRD5A2 gene. It causes the disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD) in 46,XY individuals with a variable genital phenotype. We present two siblings with female external genitalia at birth and bilateral inguinal testes, raised as females. These are the first molecularly characterized patients from the Republic of North Macedonia (RN Macedonia) with a different clinical course due to the time of the diagnosis. Diagnosis of Patient 1 was based upon the detection of bilateral inguinal testes and testosterone/dihidrotestosterone ratio. Sex reversal was initiated by testes removal at the age of 20 months. Breast implantation and vaginoplasty were performed in adolescence and the girl is comfortable with the female sex. Her sibling, Patient 2, raised as a girl, was clinically assessed at 11.5 years due to the growth of phalus, deep voice and Adam’s apple enlargement. No change of gender was accepted. Complex molecular analysis including multiplex quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for sex chromosome aneuploidies and SRY presence, Sanger sequencing combined with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and real-time PCR analysis for detection of exon copy number changes confirmed a novel c.146C>A (p.Ala49Asp) point mutation in the first exon inherited from the mother, and complete deletion of the first exon and adjacent regions inherited from the father. Novel genotype causing 5-ARD is presented. Genetic analysis is useful for the diagnosis and timely gender assignment in patients with 5-ARD. However, final gender assignment is difficult and requires combined medical interventions.