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Krystyna Pohorecka, Tomasz Kiljanek, Maja Antczak, Piotr Skubida, Piotr Semkiw and Andrzej Posyniak


Introduction: Amitraz is a formamide exhibiting both acaricidal and insecticidal activity and is frequently used by beekeepers to protect honeybee colonies against Varroa destructor mites. The aim of this apiary trial was to evaluate the impact of honeybee colony fumigation with amitraz on the level of contamination of honey stored in combs.

Material and Methods: Experimental colonies were fumigated four times every four days with one tablet of Apiwarol per treatment. Honey was sampled from combs of brood chambers and combs of supers one day after each amitraz application and from harvested honey. Amitraz marker residues (as a total of amitraz and metabolites containing parts of molecules with properties specific to the 2,4-DMA group, expressed as amitraz) were evaluated in honey.

Results: All analysed samples were contaminated with amitraz metabolites. 2,4-DMA and DMPF were the most frequently determined compounds. The average concentration of amitraz marker residue in honey from groups where a smouldering tablet was located directly in beehives was significantly higher than that of residue in honey from groups with indirect smoke generation. No significant effect on the honey contamination deriving from the place where it was exposed to smoke (combs of brood chambers and supers) was noted. Amitraz marker residues exceeded the MRL in 10% of honey samples from combs.

Conclusion: Fumigation of beehives with amitraz results in contamination of honey stored in combs.

Open access

Samuel Okwudili Onoja, Samuel Chukwuneke Udem and Aruh Ottah Anaga


Introduction: The study evaluated the ameliorative effects of Helianthus annuus leaf extract on nephrotoxicity, cardiac, and haematologic disorders in alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats.

Material and Methods: The cold maceration method with 80% methanol was used in the preparation of H. annuus extract. Thirty alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats were randomly assigned to five equal groups (A–E). Groups A and B received 5% tween-20 solution in water (5 mL/kg) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg), respectively; while groups C, D, and E received 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of the extract, respectively, per os once daily for 21 consecutive days. The levels of serum urea, creatinine, haematological indices, and histopathological changes in the kidneys and heart were evaluated 24 h after the last treatment on day 21.

Results: The extract and glibenclamide significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the levels of serum urea and urea : creatinine ratio in diabetic rats when compared with the vehicle treated group. The extract and glibenclamide also ameliorated haematological disorders and kidney and cardiac damage induced by alloxan.

Conclusion: H. annuus extract produced nephroprotective, cardioprotective, and haematoprotective effects and might prevent the advancement of diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients.

Open access

Ioan Ţilea, Andreea Varga, Septimiu Voidăzan and Adina Huţanu


Background: Twenty-four hours dynamic blood pressure (BP) behaviour displays dipper profile defined as nocturnal systolic BP (SBP) reduction>10% compared to daytime. Non-dipper profile, nocturnal absence of SBP fall, associates an increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated the concomitant association of inflammatory bio-markers - high-sensitivity- C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Human Chitinase3-like1 (YKL-40) and autonomic nervous system (total brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) with respect to non-dipping blood pressure status.

Material and method: Using 24h automatic BP measurements, 80 known hypertensive patients were divided into two groups: dipper group included fifty-one dipper patients (age 55.6 ±13.5 years) and non-dipper group consisted of 29 non-dipper subjects (62.07±12.03 years). Serum levels of hs-CRP were evaluated with enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Plasma levels of YKL-40 were measured by commercial sandwich ELISA using microplate coated with a monoclonal antibody for CHI3L1. Plasma levels of total BDNF were determined using quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay. Statistical analysis of obtained data was performed.

Results: In the non-dipper group, a significant positive association with age over 60 years, hs-CRP values above 1.90 mg/dl was observed along with increased mean values of YKL-40. Non-dipper status is independently and statistically significantly associated with elevated levels of hs-CRP (OR: 3.248, 95% CI: 1.022-10.317, p=0.046) in multivariate odds ratio analysis. No statistically significant positive association between a median total BDNF plasma level of 1430 pg/ml and the non-dipper hypertension profile was identified.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that patients over 60 years, in particular, have a higher probability to present a non-dipping pattern of hypertension. hs-CRP and YKL-40 values are more likely to increase in the non-dipping hypertensive patients, and hs-CRP values above 1.9 mg/dl can identify the presence of a non-dipper blood pressure profile.

Open access

Danusia Onişor, Alina Boeriu, Ofelia Pascarenco, Olga Brusnic and Daniela Dobru


Background: The clinical utility of non-invasive markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of ulcerative colitis (UC) has been intensively studied. The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of fecal calprotectin (FC) in differentiating between UC and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and in estimating inflammatory activity in UC.

Method: A total number of 140 patients were included in the study. All patients underwent ileocolonoscopy with biopsies, quantitative determination of FC, and blood tests (white blood cell count, CRP, ESR). The severity of UC was assessed by using the Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index (UCDAI) and Mayo endoscopic score.

Results: In patients with active UC the mean values of FC were 373.8 +/- 146.3 μg/g, significantly higher than those in the inactive UC (mean values 36.04 +/- 13.25 μg/g), and in IBS (42.9 +/- 16.00 μg/g). In univariate regression analysis, elevated FC levels strongly correlated with pancolitis (p=0.0001), UCDAI and Mayo scores (p=0.0001), and elevated CRP levels. In multivariate regression model, FC was positively associated with severe pancolitis, and elevated CRP. The optimal cutoff value of FC for the prediction of severe pancolitis (Mayo score˃ 3) was 540 μg/g. We obtained 71.4% sensitivity (CI95%: 41.95-91.6) and 96.1% specificity (CI95%: 89.2 -99.2) of FC in assessing the severity of inflammation in UC patients.

Conclusion: FC is a promising marker that can be used in clinical practice to select patients with organic intestinal disorders, compared with those with functional disorders. It also correlates very well with the extent of lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in UC, with increased sensitivity and specificity.

Open access

Elena Laura Antohi, Gabriel Tatu Chitoiu, Andrew P Ambrosy, Ioan M Coman, Dragos Vinereanu, Sean P Collins, Crina Sinescu, Serban Mihaileanu, Peter S Pang, Javed Butler and Ovidiu Chioncel


Introduction: Several landmark studies, which enrolled heart failure (HF) patients who were ambulatory at the time of inclusion, identified iron deficiency (ID) as an important therapeutic target: intravenous iron administration with ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) improves morbidity, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with HF and reduced EF (HFrEF). However, there is still limited knowledge about ID prevalence during hospitalization for Worsening Chronic HF (WCHF) and about the relationship between ID during hospitalization and post-discharge outcomes. Although previous studies documented ID as an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in HFrEF, its prognostic significance in HF patients with EF>40% remains unclear.

Method and Results: The FERIC-RO study is a prospective, multicenter, observational study with longitudinal follow up, conducted in 9 Romanian hospitals that will include 200 consecutive patients admitted for worsening HF. A comprehensive description of the Iron metabolism biomarkers will be performed on discharge and 1-month follow up. The primary endpoint is defined as the prevalence of ID on discharge and 1-month post-discharge, and the secondary endpoints include: all-cause re-hospitalization and all-cause-mortality at 1 and 3 months follow up, and quality of life on discharge and 1-month.

Conclusions: FERIC-RO will provide new evidence about the prevalence and the predictors of ID in patients hospitalized for WCHF regardless of LVEF. Furthermore, the study will explore the relationship between in-hospital ID and post-discharge outcomes. The results of FERIC-RO will thus be highly relevant to the management of patients hospitalized for AHF.

Open access

Zsombor Mathe, Razvan Constantin Serban, Irina Pintilie, Cristina Somkereki, Adina Hutanu and Alina Scridon


Introduction: The magnitude of the very early coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related inflammatory response has been shown to influence post-CABG outcomes. However, the dynamics of the systemic inflammatory response to CABG beyond the very early postoperative phase and its relevance to clinical outcomes are not fully understood.

Methods: Circulating levels of several inflammatory markers were determined in 30 consecutive patients undergoing elective isolated on-pump CABG one day prior (D0-1), and 2 (D2) and 5 days post-CABG.

Results: CABG was associated with a significant increase in all studied inflammatory marker levels (all p<0.05 for D2 versus D0-1). D2 post-CABG IL-6 and IL-8 levels were both significantly positively correlated with extracorporeal circulation (ECC) and aortic clamping (AC) times (all p<0.05), whereas a weaker correlation was observed between D2 post-CABG IL-8 levels and total surgery time (r=0.42, p=0.02). In multiple regression analysis, D2 IL-8 levels independently predicted post-CABG kidney (p= 0.02) and liver (p = 0.04) dysfunction, as well as a sum of post-CABG major complications ≥2 (p = 0.04).

Conclusions: In this prospective study, longer duration of cardiopulmonary bypass caused a larger post-CABG inflammatory surge, whereas the duration of total CABG surgery had a less significant effect. IL-8 hyperresponders had greater risk of developing kidney and liver dysfunction and presented more major post-CABG complications. These data suggest that targeting the IL-8 pathway using antiinflammatory agents, or simply by shortening the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass could improve the in-hospital post-CABG outcomes in this population.

Open access

Polliana Mihaela Leru, Vlad Florin Anton, Horia Zacheu, Theodor Voiosu and Dumitru Matei

Open access

Mariana Cornelia Tilinca, Eniko Csilla Barabas-Hajdu, Gizella Tusa Ferencz and Eniko Nemes-Nagy

Open access

Gülay Gülbol Duran, Mulkiye Kasap, Ramazan Gunesacar, Asena Cigdem Dogramacı and Yasar Gul Denli


Background: Psoriasis is a multifactorial and inflammatory chronic skin disease indicated with T-cell-mediated keratinocyte hyper-proliferation. Demographic, epidemiological (family, twin), serological, and genetic studies have clearly demonstrated that psoriasis is a polygenic and multifactorial disease.

Aim: The objectives of the study are; to determine the prevalence of the polymorphisms of FAS (Fas cell surface receptor gene) -671 A>G (rs:1800682) and FASLG (Fas ligand gene) -844 T>C (rs:763110), to investigate the serum levels of sFas and sFasL, and also to discover any relationship between gene polymorphisms and serum levels in psoriatic patients.

Material and Methods: 50 treated and 69 untreated patients, and 140 healthy controls were included in the study. Polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The serum levels were measured in randomly selected treated (39) and untreated (40) patients, also in 84 healthy controls using micro-ELISA technique.

Results: There was no statistical difference between polymorphisms in the patient and control groups. However, sFas and sFasL levels in both treated and untreated patients were higher than that of the controls.

Conclusion: The investigated FAS and FASLG polymorphisms were not found to be directly associated with the psoriasis. Elevated sFas and sFasL levels in psoriatic patients showed that these factors may possess a significant role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

Open access

Cristian-Ioan Crăciun, Anca-Elena Crăciun, Adriana Rusu, Corina Ioana Bocşan, Nicolae Hâncu and Anca Dana Buzoianu


Chronic hyperglycemia is an important cause for the development of chronic complications of diabetes, but glycemic variability has emerged in recent years as an independent contributor to diabetes-related complications. Our objective was to evaluate glycemic variability in patients with T2DM treated with insulin compared with other antidiabetic drugs. In this retrospective study, we collected 24-hour continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) recording data from 95 patients with T2DM, of which 27 treated with insulin and 68 with non-insulin treatment. We calculated and compared 16 glucose variability parameters in the insulin-treated and non-insulin treated groups. Insulin treated patients had significantly higher values of parameters describing the amplitude of glucose value fluctuations (standard deviation of glucose values, percentage coefficient of variation [%CV], and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion [MAGE], p <0.05) and time-dependent glucose variability (percentage of time with glycemic values below 70 mg/dl and continuous overall net glycemic action [CONGA] at 2, 4 and 6 hours, p <0.05). In conclusion, insulin therapy in T2DM is correlated with significantly higher glycemic variability.