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Open access

Gerard B.S. van Loevezijn and J.G.M. Raven

Abstract

The Santa Lucía Formation represents the major phase in Devonian reef development of the Cantabrian Zone (Cantabrian Mountains, northwest Spain). In the present study the transition from the carbonate platform deposits of the Santa Lucía Formation to the overlying euxinic basinal deposits of the Huergas Formation is described. These transitional strata are connected to the Basal Choteč Event and represent a condensed sedimentation of micritic dark-grey and black limestones with an upward increase of dark shale intercalations with iron mineralisation surfaces and storm-induced brachiopod coquinas. The transitional beds are grouped into a new unit, the Cabornera Bed, which consists of limestone, limestone-shale and shale facies associations, representing a sediment-starved euxinic offshore area just below the storm wave base. Four stages in reef decline can be recognised: a reef stage, an oxygen-depleted, nutrient-rich stage, a siliciclastic-influx stage and a pelagic-siliciclastic stage. Additional geochemical and geophysical investigations are needed to verify the results presented herein.

Open access

Henryk Marszałek and Michał Rysiukiewicz

Abstract

Long-term regional emissions of air pollutants in the second half of the twentieth century led to strong changes in the quality of surface and groundwater in the Karkonosze Mts. As a result, in the most valuable natural parts of these mountains, protected in the area of the Karkonosze National Park, there was strong deforestation, which assumed the size of an ecological disaster. The various protective activities introduced at the beginning of the 1990s led to the improvement not only of the water quality, but also other ecosystems. Based on the chemical analyses of water sampled in 40 points located in the whole Park, the current state of water quality was assessed. Concentrations of some microelements were higher only in few points compared to the drinking water quality standards, which indicates a significant improvement in water quality.

Open access

Wojciech Bartz and Jacek Martusewicz

Abstract

Samples of historical terrazzo floor from the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, dated back to the thirties of the twentieth century, have been analysed. Investigations by polarised optical microscopy, scanning microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and simultaneous thermal analysis were preformed. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that terrazzo tiles were prepared on the basis of ordinary Portland cement and aggregate, dominated with crushed stone (marble, serpentinite, limestone and marl), accompanied by sparse quartz sand grains. The binding mass was colourised with the use of pigments containing iron ions. The occurrence of altered serpentinite and marble grains, the latter clouded and partly replaced with micrite, the presence of portlandite, indicate the terrazzo tiles were subjected to thermal impact. This is related to the fire that took place at the beginning of World War II. Based on this study, repair mortars were formulated, on one hand compatible with the authentic ones, on the other retaining traces of fire.

Open access

Barbara Muir, Magdalena Wołowiec, Tomasz Bajda, Paulina Nowak and Piotr Czupryński

Abstract

The use of zeolites as sorbents has been investigated as a replacement for existing costly methods of removing organic contaminants from water solutions. Zeolites can be modified by inorganic salts, organic surfactants, metals or metal oxides in order to increase their adsorption capacity. The unique ion exchange and adsorption properties of zeolites make them very suitable for application in the removal of organic compounds such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and other complex petrochemicals. Many different studies have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing the concentrations of organic contaminants as well as petroleum derivatives in water, which has been summarized in this paper.

Open access

Fabian Welc, Goranka Lipovac Vrkljan, Ana Konestra and Tea Rosić

Abstract

The paper presents results of a geophysical survey conducted in Crikvenica, a town located at the north-eastern Adriatic Sea coast in Croatia. The main aim was to identify extent of a Roman pottery workshop discovered to the north of the present town, at the site known as “Igralište”. The performed magnetic and GPR surveys within the area of the modern playground in Crikvenica revealed a large number of anomalies that may be connected with anthropogenic activity during different periods, both in modern and ancient times. The first group consists of anomalies generated by remnants of the modern underground infrastructure. Magnetic and ground-penetrating radar maps revealed anomalies in the north-western part of the modern playground that can be very likely interpreted as remains of a large ceramic kiln dated back to the Roman Period, similar to the kiln discovered during the excavations located further to the north. Finally, the survey performed within the Crikvenica football stadium clearly indicates that the integration of different Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetic methods allows for a detailed and effective identification of buried archaeological structures in large areas.

Open access

Jerzy Trzciński, Małgorzata Zaremba, Sławomir Rzepka, Witold Bogusz, Tomasz Godlewski and Tomasz Szczepański

Abstract

The Tell el-Retaba archaeological site is located at Wadi Tumilat, a shallow valley running from the Nile Delta to the Bitter Lakes. In ancient times, a route connecting Egypt with Syria-Palestine ran across the site. In the 13th century BC, during the rule of Ramesses II, a fortress surrounded by “Wall 1” was erected and in times of Ramesses III in the 12th century BC, a larger fortress surrounded by “Wall 2” and “Wall 3” was constructed. Using the finite element method (FEM) and ZSoil 2D&3D software, the wall heights were modelled and their soil-structure interaction was analysed. Strength of the wall depended on size and strength of bricks and mortar, brickwork, wall shape and foundation. Ancient builders using mud bricks must have known from practical experience the essentials of a wall construction, in which the height to width ratio was at 1.75 to 1.85. Moreover, they must have related the engineering properties of the material with the height of the construction and its purpose. The width to height ratio must have been used and related by ancient Egyptians to the ground resistance. Modelling has shown that, at wall width of 5 m, the foundation would have lost its stability at wall height of 13–14 m and bricks from the lower part of the wall would be destroyed. According to the undertaken assumptions, in order to retain stability, the wall height must have been limited to about 8–9 m.